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Describe the difference between a hetrotroph and an autotroph
Hetrotroph-use organic molecules from other sources (eats stuff)
Describe Bacteria according to the chart on page 1
- cell structure: prokaryotic
- cell wall: peptidoglycan
- method of nutrition: some het, some aut
- examples: E. coli, MRSA
Describe Archea according to the chart on page 1
- Cell structure: prokaryotic
- cell wall: pseudomurein
- examples: methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles
- *no pathogens known
Describe Fungi according to the chart on page 1
- Cell Structure: Eukaryotic
- Cell Wall: Chitin
- Method of Nutrition: hetrotrophic
- Examples: Mushrooms, yeast, mold
Describe Protozoa according to the chart on page 1
- Cell Structure: eukaryotic (unicellular)
- Cell Wall: none
- Method of nutrition: some het, some aut
- Examples: Amoebas, paramesium, plasmodium
Describe Helminths according to the chart on page 1
- Cell Structure: eukaryotic
- Cell wall: none
- Method of Nutrition: hetrotroph
- Examples: flatworms, round worms
Describe Viruses according to the chart on page 1
*Are not cells*
- no cell structure or cell wall
- Method of Nutrition: parasites
- Examples: HIV, Influenza, HPV
Describe the binomial nomenclature of Genus and Species
- Both are always in italics
- Genus comes first and is always capitalized
- (May be abbreviated with first initial if previously mentioned)
- Species comes second, like a last name, and is never capitalized
Name may describe the shape of the MO, a scientist, or a habitat (Bacillus
ex: C. Lupus
Who is Anton Von Leeuwenhoek?
- -He was dutch
- -During the 1670's
- -He made the best microscopes and was probably the first person to see like MO thru them
- -in a way, he discovered microbes
- -made detailed drawings of "animalcules"
What is spontaneous generation?
The idea that life could come from non-living matter
Who resolved the spontaneous generation conflict? How did he do it?
- -Loius Pasteur (french chemist) solved it in 1861
- -microorganisms present in the air can cause contamination, but air does not produce microbes
- -displayed this was using a Swan, "S", flask
- -He would heat the flask and then no MO could get in and so it was no contaminated and nothing could grow while the substance still had access to O2
- *created the Asceptic technique that we use today*
- *the beginning of microbiology as a science
When was the golden age of microbiology and who started it?
From 1857-1914, it began with Pasteur
Who was Edward Jenner?
- -A British MD who in 1796 showed immunity for the first time in the west
- -Found that those who were infected with cowpox did not get small pox
- -gave cowpox as a vaccine to show immunity
- -tested this in children
- *last known case of smallpox in 1977
Who was Joseph Lister?
- -An English Surgeon in 1850s who used Pasteur's idea of pasteurization to create aseptic surgery
- -used phenal (carbolic acid) on surgical wounds to kill bacteria
- -became a widespread practice
- -proved that microbes caused infections in surgical wounds
- -one of the first medical attempts to prevent infection by MOs
Who is Robert Koch?
- -German MD who in 1876 proved that specific microbes can cause a specific disease
- -Made a pure culture of anthrax bacteria from dead animals who had the mo in their blood, and tested on mice (20 infected/20 placebo)
- -officially discovered Bacillus antracis in 1877
- -created a series of tests to identify if an MO is causing a disease
- -used the same tests on cholera and TB
What are Koch's Postulates?
- 1. MO are isolated from dead animal that showed specific symptoms
- 2. MO are grown in a pure culture and identified
- 3. MO are injected in a healthy animal
- 4. The disease is reproduced in the second animal; same MO are isolated from this animal
- 5. Pathogenic MO are grown in a pure culture and identified to match original MO
What is Pasteur's Concept of Immunization?
- 1. Grow the MO in lab (to make it harmless, which doesn't always work)
- 2. Inject harmless MO into animal
- 3. Animal is subsequently immune from that MO
Who is responsible for the cell theory/theory of cells?
Besides the aseptic technique, what else is Pasteur responsible for?
- -In 1850-1890 he discovered that yeast in beer/wine causes fermentation
- *this was the first time MO were linked to food spoilage
- *major step in linking disease to microbes
- -led to the germ theory of disease
Created Pasteurization: heating just enough to kill most of the MO causing spoilage
How did Pasteur aide in the discovery of immunity?
- In 1880's, he found that lab reared Y. pestis (fowl cholera) was not pathogenic, but that the chickens had to get it from an already infected fowl friend
- *Pasteur's concept of immunity
- -Tried the same thing for Rabies, but had to test it on a young boy before it was ready.
- -It worked, and was the first successful immunization
Who was Paul Ehrlich?
- A German PhD Organic Chemist who researched dyes (dyes also to stain MO)
- -discovered that some dyes only stain certain MO and wanted to find the "magic bullet" that would target disease but not the host (they knew that arsenic would kill syphillis, but would also kill the host. solution was needed)
- -first synthetic drug in 1910
- -Salvarsan against syphillis
Who was Alexander Fleming?
- -A British MD who in 1928 discovered penicillin by accident while studying staphylococcus
- -penicillin did not let bacteria grow on the culture plate
- -antibiotic produced by a fungus
- -first known antibiotic
The study of bacteria
The study of fungi
branches: medical, agricultural, and ecological
The study of protozoa and parasitic worms
The study of immunity
The study of viruses
What is biotechnology?
commercial use of MO to produce common foods or chemicals
What are Normal Microbiota?
- A variety of MO we encounter in everyday life inside and outside our bodies
- -most cause us no harm and can be useful
What is drug resistance?
when an MO no longer responds to drug therapy due to a mutation
What are EIDs?
- Emerging Infection Diseases
- -diseases that are new or changing and are increasing or have the potential to increase in the near future
- Examples: Bird Flu, MRSA, VRSA, mad cow, ebola, AIDS
How are microorganisms essential in everyday life when it comes to decomposition and nutrient recycling?
- Microbes cause decay which is essential for life to continue
- -see the Nitrogen cycle: without microbial breakdown, we would not be able to get enough Nitrogen. Bacteria breaks it down into elements that can be used by plants and other microorganisms as well as recycling it back to the air
How are microorganisms essential in everyday life when it comes to industrial and commercial uses?
- without microbes, there would be no solid wastes and we would not have:
- cheese, penicillin, beer or bread, chocolate, recombinant human erythropoieten injection or insulin, no pizza dough, or coffee beans.
we also use microbes for pest control, dying clothes, and waste management
What is the importance of MO in pathogenesis?
- -50% of premature death is caused by infectious disease
- - 1/4 of all deaths
- -1/2 of low income countries
- -2/3 of deaths among children under 5 yrs