Bio1 skull orbit

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Author:
wasifsheikh
ID:
199168
Filename:
Bio1 skull orbit
Updated:
2013-02-09 14:57:40
Tags:
skull orbit
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Description:
lec 1
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  1. Gross bone structure
    Surface coverings?
    • Outer: Periosteum (dense connective tissue)
    •  
    • Inner: Endosteum (fine connective tissue)
  2. Gross bone structure

    Outer shell?

    Inner core?
    • Outer shell
    • Hard & rigid = Compact or ‘Lamellar’ bone

    • Inner core
    • Softer & lighter = Cancellous or ‘Spongy’ bone
    • Contains Marrow & Air pockets

    Purpose: Greatest strength at minimum weight
  3. Bone Components
    Living (dense connective) tissue: Cells, collagen fibres & ground substance


    • Specializations:
    •      
    • Bone-forming cells: Osteo-blasts (-cytes)
    •      
    • Bone-remodelling cells: Osteo-clasts
    •      
    • Extracellular matrix components mineralized:
    • - Calcium & Phosphate
    • - 66-75% by weight = calcium (-hydroxy apatite) crystals
    • - Confers hardness & rigidity
  4. Bone Cells (also found in periosteum & the endosteum)
    Osteo-blasts:

    • - Related to fibroblasts
    • - Matrix production, calcium deposition    
    • - RER + Golgi Apparatus
    •   (Osteocyte)

    Osteoclasts:

    • - Related to macrophages
    • - Digestion bone debris (wear-&-tear), calcium retrieval
    • - Lysosomes
  5. Skull Bones
    General & Unusual features:
    •     
    • N=22: 6 unpaired, 8 paired

    •    
    • -Shape: flat or irregular
    •      
    • - Articulations (joints) via ‘sutures’
    • Except Mandible (ball-&-socket)
    •      
    • - Form or contain holes (fissures,
    • foramina)
    • Transmission of cranial nerves &
    • blood vessels     

    -Several possess air sinuses

    -‘Intra-membranous’ Development
  6. Skull Bones by Region
    Cranial
    • Cranium (Vault), N=8:
    • -Unpaired:               -Paired:
    • frontal*                    parietal
    • occipital                   temporal
    • sphenoid*
    • ethmoid*

    • These 3*
    • also contribute to the Orbital Cavity
  7. Skull Bones by Region
    Facial
    • Facial, N=14:
    • - Paired:              -Unpaired:
    • maxilla*               mandible
    • zygomatic*           vomer
    • lacrimal*
    • palatine*
    • nasal
    • inferior conchae

    • These 4* also contribute to the Orbital Cavity
  8. Irregular multi-part bones
    Temporal (5 parts):

    Squamous (flat), Petrous (hard) portions

    Zygomatic, Mastoid & Styloid processes


    Sphenoid (5 parts):

    Greater* & Lesser* Wings, Body*

    • Anterior & Posterior Clinoid
    • processes

    Ethmoid (3 parts):

    Cribiform, Perpendicular & Orbital* plates

    • These 4* also contribute to the Orbital
    • Cavity

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