CD 410 EXAM 1

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CD 410 EXAM 1
2013-02-12 01:12:15

Exam 1
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  1. What is a language phenomena?
    Something that holds true when learning any language.

    Also known as a universal
  2. Language acquisition vs. Language development
    • Acquisition- how we acquire language (phenomena)
    • Development- How language progresses (before birth, in utero, etc)
  3. By what age do children generally acquire the major aspects of language
    age 3-4
  4. When has child become savvy enough to adapt language to given language or situation
    by the 1st grade
  5. Rapid Fading
    Speech sounds do not last forever, we rely on our memory, because we do not continue to hear them.
  6. Total Feedback
    We receive feedback about what we say and how we say it. 
  7. Specialization
    Speech is an overlaid function- all of the components involved in the production of speech are also used to help us sustain life (swallowing)
  8. Arbitrariness
    What we learn is arbitrary... a water bottle is only a water bottle because we have learned to call it as such.  We just as easily could have learned to call it a lamp...
  9. Discreteness
    Every language has a finite/discreet number of sounds
  10. Displacement
    The relationship between cognition and language.  We are able to talk about things that have already happened or that are in the future.
  11. Productivity
    We create new and novel things all of the time, we are creative with the way we use language and communication (slang)
  12. What is Language Form?
    • phonology, syntax, grammar, morphology
    • Rules combining words into meaningful language
  13. What is language Content?
    • The meaning of language
    • Vocabulary
    • Semantics
  14. What is Language Use?
    • The contexts in which we use language
    • Pragmatics
    • Why, when and where we use language
  15. Phonology
    the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages.
  16. Syntax
    • How sentences are constructed
    • verb/noun/adj order in sentances
    • "me no go" is correct syntax incorrect grammar
  17. Grammar
    structured set of rules of structure of language.
  18. morphology
    Study of the content and structure of word forms (morphemes)
  19. Semantics
    The meaning
  20. Pragmatics
  21. Words have CV Shape F/C/U?
  22. Using full prepositional clauses F/C/U?
  23. Speech is 75% intelligible F/C/U?
  24. Understands and uses Wh- questions F/C/U?
  25. Understands and uses Wh- questions F/C/U?
  26. Uses please for politeness F/C/U?
  27. Maintains interaction for 3 conversational turns F/C/U?
  28. Use 3rd person singular s F/C/U?
  29. Understands 2-word relations such as possession F/C/U?
  30. Use of cluster reduction F/C/U?
  31. Continues topic by adding new information F/C/U?
  32. Kindergartener's average vocabulary
    8000 words
  33. What was the Theoretical approach to language acquisition in the 1960s?
    • We learn everything from our parents
    • -This suggests that if we do not have parents we will not learn, and this is flawed
    • -ENVIRONMENT= THE factor
  34. What was the Theoretical approach to language acquisition in the 1970s?
    • Humans are predisposed to communicate and learn language.
    • Environment is still a factor but not the ONLY factor.
  35. What was the Theoretical approach to language acquisition in the 1990s?
    • We WANT to learn language to have meaningful social interactions
    • Biology + Participation
  36. Behaviorist/Empiricist Theory
    • Skinner
    • Nurture
    • Language is about what I do not what I know (reinforcement)
  37. Expressive vocabulary development
    Operant Behavior + Reward= Repeated Behavior
  38. Echoic
    Ability to imitate a model
  39. Tact
    Name or label
  40. Mand
    Request, demand, command
  41. Intraverbal
    Free association (say whatever is on your mind)
  42. Autoclitic
    Link words to combine ideas (context)
  43. Receptive Vocabulary Development (Classical Conditioning)
    Pairing two behaviors together and associating them (ringing the bell and feeding the god)
  44. Nativist View
    • Chomsky
    • Nature
    • What we KNOW not what we DO (we are born with a basic set of grammar rules)
  45. Generative social structure/semantics theory
    • Filmore/Bloom
    • Nurture
    • Context determines meaning
  46. Cognitive View Theory
    • Piaget
    • Nurture
    • Cognitive development precedes language
    • development
  47. Information Processing View
    • Bates & MacWhinney
    • Nurture
    • Early on we process information at a very basic, very novice level the more we use it the more of an expert we become
  48. Social Interactionist Theory
    • Vygotsky
    • Nurture
    • As long as you are working within the zone of proximal development, you see improvement.
  49. Locutionary Act
    What you say
  50. Illocutionary Act
    What you are trying to say
  51. Perlocutionary Act
    The actual effect of what was said
  52. Interactionist view
    Nature + Nurture
  53. Schema
    • What makes up a concept
    • Your idea of something
    • What comes to your mind when someone says "dog"
  54. Assimilation
    • Incoming information is integrated into an existing schema
    • Revising schema to include other characteristics (golden retriever, collie, etc)
  55. Accommodation
    • Categorizing. Incoming information does not fit into an existing schema so cannot be integrated
    • Ex: Learning what an elephant is when you only have a schema of a dog
  56. Object permanence
    An object still exists even when it is out of sight
  57. Causality
    Certain events cause other events to happen
  58. Means-ends
    • Find ways to accomplish goals 
    • Ex: If we see a cookie jar on a counter but we cannot reach it, we will get a stool to stand on so that we can reach it.
  59. Imitation
    trying to duplicate models