CSET 1: History Glossary

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hunnie_bebe
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CSET 1: History Glossary
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2013-02-11 11:56:25
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CSET 1: History Glossary
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  1. aqueduct
    man-made channel constructed to convey water from one location to another
  2. bear flag revolt
    brief attempt at the beginning of the Mexican-American War to est. an independent CA republic
  3. bushido
    code of knights in feudal Japan, equivalent of chivalry in Europe
  4. CA's mission system
    "sacred expedition" in which 21 Spanish Catholic missions were est, spaced to be a single day's travel apart on El Camino real (the Royal Road)
  5. Californios
    residents of the rancho system in CA just before the Mexican-American war, mainly comprised of Mexican citizen who identified more as Californios than as Mexicans
  6. capitalism
    an economic system regulated by the state that encourages the accumulation of wealth n property of individuals
  7. caste
    division of society based on differences of wealth, inherited rank or privilege, profession, or occupation
  8. central valley project (CVP)
    federal water project undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1935 as a long-term plan to effectively use water in CA's central valley
  9. checks and balances
    written into the Constitution, this concept is one of the cornerstones of our republic, encompassing 3 branches of govt and a system for them to act as watchdogs for the others
  10. circumnavigate
    to sail completely around the Earth
  11. code of Hammurabi
    first known written legal code, developed in ancient Babylon, predated the Justinian Code by about 2,000 yrs
  12. Communism
    economic system in which the states controls the means of production and distributes the profits
  13. conquistadores
    Spanish explorers that sought riches in central and So. America, est. colonies along the way
  14. daimyo
    Japanese feudal lord
  15. democratic-republican party
    1 of the first 2 political parties in the US, lead by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison; opposed the Federalist party n was strongly in favor of individual rights
  16. economics
    social science dealing w/ the production, distribution, consumption of goods n services
  17. emancipation proclamation
    proclamation made by President Lincoln in 1863 freeing all slaves in regions still fighting against the Union
  18. executive branch
    branch of the system of checks and balances that sees that the country's laws are executed
  19. federalism
    system of govt consisting of a number of self-governing regions (states) united by a central (federal) govt
  20. federalist papers
    series of articles written in 1787 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay to gain popular support for the then-proposed constitution
  21. feudalism
    social, economic, political system in which pwr is decentralized, n a varying number of lords hold land on which they allow to live n work in return for loyalty n service
  22. fief
    land held by lords under the feudal system
  23. forty-niners
    nickname for the influx of people that arrived in CA, starting in 1849, in search of gold
  24. free-soilers
    minor but influential political party in the pre-civil war period that opposed the extension of slavery into the western territories
  25. gentleman's agreement
    1907 treaty w/ Japan that allowed wives to join their husbands in the US on the condition that the Japanese govt deny exit visas to any men wishing to emigrate to the states
  26. great awakening
    religious revival in the colonies during the first part of the 18th century
  27. great compromise
    decision made by the Constitutional congress splitting Congress into 2 houses, one based on population (house of Reps), and one based on equal representation (Senate)
  28. hunter/gather societies
    early society in which men hunted for meat and women gathered more readily available food
  29. initiative
    process that gives individual citizens, or grps of citizens, pwer to place a proposed law on a ballot
  30. intolerable acts (or coercive acts)
    Brit reaction to the Boston Tea Party, including more rigid restrictions on colonial town meetings n other harsh penalties
  31. judicial branch
    branch of the system of checks n balances that interprets Congressional laws
  32. justinian code
    considered to be the basis for the justice systems in use throughout much of the western world, including the US
  33. law of supply n demand
    basic economic principle stating that if supply is greater than demand, the value of a product is lower; if demand is greater than supply, the value is higher
  34. legislative branch
    branch of the system of checks n balances that makes Congressional laws
  35. Louisiana purchase
    1803 purchase made by Pres Thomas Jefferson that essentially doubled the US territory
  36. manifest destiny
    1845 encapsulating the American vision of western expansion
  37. mercantilism
    practice of state regulation and control of an economy
  38. Missouri compromise
    1820 legislation that tried to resolve the conflicts raised by the addition of new territories as either slave or non-slave owning areas
  39. monotheism
    worship of only one god
  40. nullification
    concept espoused by southerners following the Missouri Compromise that would have given so. states the right to refuse to obey laws they did not agree w/
  41. "octopus"
    term used to describe the central pacific railroad's monopoly for having an arm in practically every sector of CA's commerce
  42. pilgrims
    religious grp who had broken way from the Church o England, first relocating to Holland to escape persecution then setting sail in the fall of 1620 to become the first settlers to arrive in MA
  43. popular sovereignty
    direct democracy
  44. presidio
    forts built by the Spanish to offer protection to CA's missionaries n settlers during period of violent revolt by native workers
  45. pueblos
    towns based around CA's missions n presidios, built around a church n a town square
  46. rancho system
    land allotment system defined by a few large landowners n many landless workers
  47. recall
    mechanism for ending an elected official's tenure before its scheduled completion
  48. reconstruction
    Pres Lincoln's first priority after the Civil war to reconcile the warring sides n rebuild areas affected by war
  49. referendum
    statute or amendment that has passed the state legislature, which is then placed the proposed law on a ballot fro approval by the electorate
  50. reincarnation
    religious belief in which, after physical death, a rebirth in another body occurs, a central tenet of Hinduism among other religions
  51. relocation camps
    internment camps that held people of Japanese descent during WWII
  52. renaissance
    French word meaning rebirth; the name given to the flowering of European culture at the end of the Medieval period
  53. secession
    self-given right of the 7 states of the lower South to leave the Union if they so desired
  54. separate but equal
    philosophy, along w/ election rules, that was designed to deny blacks the right to vote after reconstruction ended
  55. serf
    peasants who work on land in a feudal system
  56. shogun
    in feudal Japan, equivalent of a medieval European king
  57. silicon valley
    nickname for the so. part of the SF in no. CA, originally referring to the concentration of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually referring to the entire concentration of all types of high-tech businesses
  58. socialism
    an economic system in which workers control the means of production n share in the profits of their labor
  59. 10% plan
    plan created by Pres Lincoln before his assassination, n carried out by his successor, Andrew Johnson, stating that a state could be readmitted to the Union if 10% of the former Confederates in the state who had voted in the 1860 election vowed loyalty to the Union
  60. 3/5s compromise
    initial rule in the Constitution stating that in state population counts, each slave would count for 3/5 of a free person
  61. vassal
    equivalent of a knight in the feudal system

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