CSET 2: Science Glossary

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hunnie_bebe
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CSET 2: Science Glossary
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2013-02-11 11:55:54
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CSET Science Glossary
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CSET 2: Science Glossary
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  1. absorption
    process through which organisms make nutrients available to cells
  2. acceleration
    rate of change of an object's velocity
  3. acid
    solute that donates protons
  4. air pressure
    movement n collision of gas molecules in the atmosphere that can form into high- or low-pressure areas
  5. alleles
    different versions of a gene in a population
  6. angiosperms
    flowering plants
  7. auxins
    important class of plant hormones associated w/ growth patterns
  8. base
    solute that accepts protons
  9. binary fission
    reproductive mechanism of prokaryotes
  10. carbohydrates (saccharides)
    biological molecules that have important roles in energy metabolism n storage as well as the structure of cells n organisms
  11. central nervous system
    system comprised of the brain n spinal cord in vertebrates that processes n stores information
  12. charge
    excess or deficiency of electrons in a body
  13. circulatory system
    system for transporting nutrients n other essential materials throughout the body
  14. classical genetics
    study for the patterns n mechanisms of the transmission of inherited traits from one generation to another
  15. climate
    long-term patterns of temperature, humidity and amount of sunshine
  16. condensation
    the process by which gas reverts back into the liquid phase
  17. crust
    outermost layer of the Earth
  18. deposition
    the process by which a gas changes directly to the solid phase
  19. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    genetic material that contains genes responsible of the physical traits observed in all living organisms
  20. dynamics
    study of what causes motion
  21. ecosystem
    community n its abiotic environment
  22. electric current (direct, alternating)
    flow of a charge
  23. endocrine system
    network of glands n tissues that secrete hormones
  24. endoskeleton
    framework for the attachment of skeletal muscles in vertebrates that also protects vital organs
  25. equinox
    calendar dates when the day n night are the same length
  26. eukaryotic cells
    multicellular organisms whose cells contain organelles
  27. evaporation (vaporization)
    process by which liquid changes into the gas phase
  28. exoskeleton
    hard external skeleton that covers all the muscles n organs of some invertebrates
  29. external fertilization
    process of fertilization in vertebrates that reproduce in water
  30. fault
    weakened narrow zones in tectonic plates
  31. fertilization
    union of an egg nucleus w/ sperm nucleus
  32. fitness
    quantitative measure of the ability to contribute alleles n traits to offspring
  33. food chain
    simple linear relationship between series of species, w/ on eating the other
  34. food web
    depiction of the relationships w/in a community in which every population interacts w/ several other populations
  35. force
    push or pull on an object
  36. freezing (solidification, crystallization)
    process by which a liquid changes into a solid
  37. galaxy
    huge cluster or stars n nebulae
  38. gametes
    sex cells produced through meiosis in males n females
  39. gene pool
    sum total of all alleles in a population
  40. genes
    molecules that store n transfer genetic info
  41. genotype
    an organism's genetic composition
  42. gravity
    attractive force felt by all forms of matter
  43. gymnosperms
    nonflowering plants
  44. haploid cells
    gametes that, when joined, produce diploid offspring
  45. hormones
    chemical messengers produced in one tissue n carried by the blood to act on other parts of the body
  46. hypothesis
    an explanation for one or more observations about the natural world
  47. immune system
    body's system of protection against invasion by unwanted organisms
  48. maturation
    development of an embryo to an adult
  49. meiosis
    specialized form of eukaryotic cell division involving male n female gametes
  50. melting (fusion)
    proces by which a solid changes into a liquid
  51. minerals
    naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solids
  52. mitosis
    asexual reproductive process of eukaryotic cells in which cells divide to form 2 daughter cells w/ the same genetic makeup as the parent cell
  53. nucleic acids
    essential info molecules found in all living things
  54. organic compounds
    chemicals that contain carbon, inorganic compounds do not contain carbon
  55. organs
    large anatomical structures made from several tissues
  56. orogenesis
    processes of mt formation
  57. osmosis
    simple diffusion of water from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration
  58. ova
    female gamete
  59. phenotype
    appearance n physical expression of genes in an organism
  60. photosynthesis
    foundation of all eosystems wherein plants generate their own energy from the energy of the sun
  61. population
    grp of members of the same species found in a given environment at a given time
  62. power
    rate at which work is done
  63. precipitation
    consumption of one organism by another
  64. prokaryotic cells
    unicellular organisms w/ a simple cell structure
  65. respiration
    bodily system used to transport oxygen to cells n rid body of waste products like carbon dioxide
  66. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    polymer of nucleotides associated w/ the control of cellular chemical activities
  67. scientific method
    accepted method for testing scientific hypotheses
  68. solstice
    calendar dates when the days are longest or shortest
  69. solubility
    maximum amt of that substance that can be dissolved in a particular solvent at a particular temperature
  70. solvent
    in a solution, substance that does the dissolving; what is dissolved is known as the solute
  71. speciation
    creation of new species
  72. species
    grp of similar organisms that can produce viable offspring
  73. spermatozoa
    male gamete
  74. static friction
    force that must bve overcome to set an object in motion
  75. stratosphere
    layer of the atmosphere located above the troposphere in which most of the atmosphere's ozone is found
  76. sublimation
    process by which a solid changes directly to the gas phase
  77. symbiosis
    relationship between organisms in which they share an intimate, often permanent coexistence
  78. taxonomy
    the science of classifying n naming living things
  79. tectonic plates
    thick slabs of rock that compromise the outer portion of Earth
  80. theory
    tested hypothesis
  81. thermoregulation
    maintenance of a particular temperature of the living body
  82. tide
    alternate rising n falling of the surface of the ocean caused by the gravitational attraction of the Sun n Moon occurring unequally on different parts of the Earth
  83. tissues
    specialized cells w/ a common function n similar form in multicellular organisms
  84. troposphere
    layer of the atmosphere located closest to the Earth's surface in which weather occurs
  85. vegetative propagation
    asexual reproductive process of many plants, including bulbs n tubers
  86. zygote
    diploid single cell offspring formed from the union of gametes

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