urinary exam

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  1. anuria
    • absence of urine.
    • ( may be associated with acute renal failure)
  2. oliguria
    diminished or abnormally decreased flow of urine

    (maybe due to dehydration, renal failure, or obstruction)
  3. polyuria
    abnormally high and dilute urine output

    (the result of excessive solutes and increased excretion of water.)
  4. nocturia
    urination that occurs during the night

    (maybe related to the decreased ability of the aging kidney to concentrate urine)
  5. urinary frequency
    voiding more often than 2hours.

    (this can be due to inflammation, decreased bladder capacity, psychological disorders, pregnancy or increased fluid intake) 
  6. urinary hesitancy
    a delay in starting the stream of urine

    (may be related to partial obstruction)
  7. urinary retention
    retaining or holding urine in the bladder

    (various causes including neurologic, psychological, medication, obstruction, or anesthesia) 
  8. residual urine
    that which is left in the bladder after voiding

    (related to poor muscle tone or partial obstruction.)
  9. dysuria
    painful urination
  10. urge incontinence  
    the involuntary loss of urine when there is a strong urge to urinate
  11. stress incontinence
    when the urethral sphincters fails and there is an increase in intra-abdominal pressure 

    • (caused by such things as sneezing, laughing, coughing, or aerobic exercise)
  12. mixed incontinence
    combination of different types, such as stress and urge incontinence
  13. overflow incontinence
    occurs when there is poor contractility of the detrusor muscle or obstruction of the urethra

    (as in prostate hypertrophy in the male, or genital prolapse in the female)
  14. functional incontinence
    • caused by cognitive inability to recognize
    • inability to recognize the urge to urinate or self-care deficit caused by extreme depression.

    (inability to reach bathroom due to restraints, side rails, or an out-of-reach walker can also result in functional incontinence.)
  15. neurologic incontinence
    caused by disorders of the neurologic system

    (multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury)
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urinary exam
2013-02-09 22:06:00
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urinary system
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