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- absence of urine.
- ( may be associated with acute renal failure)
diminished or abnormally decreased flow of urine
(maybe due to dehydration, renal failure, or obstruction)
abnormally high and dilute urine output
(the result of excessive solutes and increased excretion of water.)
urination that occurs during the night
(maybe related to the decreased ability of the aging kidney to concentrate urine)
voiding more often than 2hours.
(this can be due to inflammation, decreased bladder capacity, psychological disorders, pregnancy or increased fluid intake)
a delay in starting the stream of urine
(may be related to partial obstruction)
retaining or holding urine in the bladder
(various causes including neurologic, psychological, medication, obstruction, or anesthesia)
that which is left in the bladder after voiding
(related to poor muscle tone or partial obstruction.)
the involuntary loss of urine when there is a strong urge to urinate
when the urethral sphincters fails and there is an increase in intra-abdominal pressure
- (caused by such things as sneezing, laughing, coughing, or aerobic exercise)
combination of different types, such as stress and urge incontinence
occurs when there is poor contractility of the detrusor muscle or obstruction of the urethra
(as in prostate hypertrophy in the male, or genital prolapse in the female)
- caused by cognitive inability to recognize
- inability to recognize the urge to urinate or self-care deficit caused by extreme depression.
(inability to reach bathroom due to restraints, side rails, or an out-of-reach walker can also result in functional incontinence.)
caused by disorders of the neurologic system
(multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury)
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