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What are the water soluble vitamins?
- Folate (folic acid)
- Pantothenic acid
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
What is an EAR?
The amount that is sufficient for 1/2 of the population is what?
What is an RDA?
Recommended Dietary Allowance is adequate for most of the population 97-98% (won't have adverse affects - deficiency)
What is an AI?
The adequate amount of a nutrient needed to prevent a deficiency based on an educated guess.
What is a UL?
the tolerable upper intake level is called what?
What would happen to you if you took the amount listed for the UL?
What would happen if you took more than the recommended UL?
You are at risk for a toxicity
What is needed in order to establish an EAR for a nutrient?
When the food and nutrition board agrees that there is an accurate way to measure if intake is adequate, often the activity of an enzyme or ability of a cell or organ to function is used.
What information is needed in order to establish an RDA for a nutrient?
They must first have an EAR, and is based on a multiple of the EAR (RDA = EAR * 1.2). Also the nutrient's ability to prevent a chronic disease is measured not just a deficiency.
If there is insufficient evidence to establish an EAR what kind of recommendation is given?
An AI is determined when what cannot be established?
What are the appropriate uses for DRI standards?
these are to help reduce the risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. They should be averaged over several days not just one.
What kind of nutrients do the DRI's deal with?
What system is used to make recommendations for micronutrients?
What is a coenzyme?
A non-protein that partners with an enzyme to catalyze a reaction is called what?
Which vitamins form co-enzymes?
- The B-vitamins are co-enzymes
- Pantothenic acid
What vitamins are added in enriched grains?
Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, and Folate are all vitamins added to what? (Iron is also added)
What is the Thiamin Co-enzyme?
Thiamin Pyrophosphate (TPP) is the co-enzyme form of what vitamin?
What is/are the co-enzyme(s) formed from Riboflavin?
- Flavin adenine dinucliotide (FAD)
- Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)
What is/are the co-enzymes formed from Niacin?
- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)
What are some good food sources of Thiamin?
Sunflower seeds, ham, fortified cereals, and beans
What things can inactivate Thiamin?
Raw fish, putting baking soda in beans, heat, and alkalinity or other oxidizing compounds
What foods are poor sources of Thiamin?
Orange juice, potatoes, asparagus, green pease, rice,
What affects does cooking with baking soda, or other alkaline environments have on thiamin?
They will lower the bioavalability of Thiamin.
What foods contain Thiaminase enzymes?
fresh shellfish, and shell fish contain what?
What is thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)?
What is the co-enzyme formed from Thiamin?
What role does TPP play in carbohydrate metabolism?
- it works with specific enzymes to remove carbon dioxide (decarboxylation)
- - the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
- - aids in the conversion of the intermediate compound alpha-ketogluterate to succinyl-CoA
Who is at risk for Thiamine deficiency?
Poor people in developing countries who eat mostly white rice, and alcoholics are at risk for what kind of deficiency?
What is the deficiency disease of Thiamin?
Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is caused by a deficiency of what vitamin?
What are the symptoms of Beriberi?
- peripheral neuropathy and weakness, muscle pain and tenderness, enlargement of the heart, difficulty breathing, edema, anorexia, weight loss, poor memory, and confusion.
- - glucose cannot be converted to acetyl-CoA
What are the symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
changes in vision, ataxia (poor muscle coordination/stumbling), congestive heart failure, edema, and impaired mental function are the symptoms of what?
Who is at risk for Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?
Alcoholics are at risk for what deficiency disease?
What food groups are good sources of Riboflavin?
Beef liver, Plain Yogurt, milk products, enriched bread/grains, eggs, and meat are all good sources for what vitamin?
What affects riboflavin stability?
What vitamin is destroyed by Sunlight?
What role does the Riboflavin co-enzyme FAD play in the citric acid cycle?
The oxidation of succinate to fumerate is made possible by what co-enzyme?
How does Riboflavin help in the oxidation of succinate to fumerate?
The enzyme succinate dehydrogenase needs what co-enzyme to oxidate succinate to fumerate?
What does the FADH2 that is formed by the oxidation of succinate to fumerate do?
FADH2 will donate hydrogen to the electron transport chain after what reaction?
In fatty acid breakdown(Beta-oxidation) to acetyl-CoA, the enzyme fatty acyl dehydrogenase needs what co-enzyme?
FAD is required for breaking down fatty acids in a process called
What are the symptoms of Riboflavin deficiency?
Cracking at the corners of the mouth, red sore tongue, and seborrhea dermatitis (like the red dots I had on my face) are symptoms of a deficiency in what vitamin?
Who is at risk for a Riboflavin deficiency?
Alcoholics, malabsorption disorders, people with very poor diets, adolescent girls and the elderly are at risk for what deficiency?
What is Ariboflavinosis?
This is the name of riboflavin deficiency disease
What is seborrheic dermatitis?
This is the rash that occurs when there is a riboflavin deficiency
What is stomatitis?
This is inflammation of the mucus linings of the mouth due to a riboflavin deficiency
What is Glossitis?
This is the name of the inflammation of the tongue due to a riboflavin deficiency.
What is angular cheilitis?
This is the name for the cracking on the sides of the mouth due to Riboflavin deficiency
What are the two forms of Niacin?
Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide are the two forms of what vitamin?
What foods are good sources on Niacin?
Chicken, Tuna, enriched grains, whole grains, beef, and turkey are all good sources of what vitamin?
What are the names of the two Niacin co-enzymes?
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are the names of ___.
Where are niacin's co-enzymes needed?
NAD+ is mostly needed for the catabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
How does NAD+ function as a co-enzyme?
In glycolosis and the citric acid cycle what co-enzyme acts as a H+ acceptor?
When is NAD+ regenerated?
What is regenerated during anaerobic conditions of pyruvate is converted to lactic acid?
What does NAD+H+ do under aerobic conditions?
_______ donates electrons and hydrogen to acceptor molecules in the e- transport chain (contributing to ATP synthesis)
What does Alcohol metabolism require?
Niacin co-enzymes are required for _______ metabolism.
What is the pro-vitamin for Niacin?
Tryptophan is the provitamin for what vitamin?
How much niacin can you get from 60mg of tryptophan?
You can get 1mg of niacin from how much tryptophan?
How do you estimate the total amount of niacin in your food?
Take the total grams of protein and divide by 6 to get what?
What is required to make niacin from tryptophan?
Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 co-enzymes are needed to make ______ from ________.
What is Beta-oxidation?
The process by which fatty acids are broken down in the cytosol to generate pyruvate, which enters mitochondria as acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the citric acid cycle.
How does one get pellagra?
By not eating enough niacin you will end up with
What are the symptoms of pellagra?
Rough red rash that appears where the skin is exposed to daylight, diarrhea, and dementia...eventually death
What are the 4 D's of pellagra?
Who is at risk for developing pellagra?
Wherever corn is the staple food of the people (usually in poor countries)
What are the adverse affects of consuming too much niacin?
Flushing in the skin, GI tract upset, and liver damage are associated with too much of what vitamin?
What are the possible benefits of high doses of nicotinic acid?
Increase in HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels when combined with diet changes and exercise are the possible benefits
What foods have pantothenic acid?
Meat, milk, and many vegetables contain this vitamin
What is the co-enzyme for pantothenic acid?
Co-enzyme A or Co-A is the co-enzyme for what vitamin?
What is the role of pantothenic acid in the citric acid cycle?
Pantothenic acid is required to make Acetyl Co-A which then enters the _________ cycle.
Who is at risk for a pantothenic acid deficiency?
The deficiency of this vitamin has only been seen in experimentally induced situations.
What are bioavailable sources for biotin?
Whole grains, eggs, nuts, and legumes
Where is biotin synthesized?
Bacteria in the large intestine synthesize this vitamin
Why do raw egg whites decrease the bioavailability of biotin?
This food binds biotin in such a way that it is no longer bioavailable.
What enzyme in the small intestine releases biotin from protein?
What does the enzyme Biotinidase do?
What is carboxylation?
The addition of a caroxyl group, COOH, into a compound or molecule
What role does biotin play in producing oxaloacetate?
Biotin acts as a co-enzyme for carboxylase enzymes that turn Pyruvate into what?
What are the symptoms of Biotin deficiency?
Skin rash, hair loss, convulsions, low muscle tone, and impaired growth are symptoms of what deficiency?
Who is at risk for biotin deficiency?
Infants born without biotinidase, use of anticonvulsant medications, pple. with severe intestinal disease, and pple. who regularly ingest large amount (>12) of raw eggs are at risk for a deficiency in what?
What are the three forms of Vitamin B-6
What is the co-enzyme for B-6?
What are the leading sources of B-6 in the U.S. food supply?
Meat, bananas, and NON-enriched but FORTIFIED foods
What are the key functions of B-6?
- Bood formation and clotting
- Making Heme
- Break off glucose from glycogen
- Neurotransmitter synthesis (need PLP)
- Make niacin from triptophan
- Decrease homosystene (lowers risk of heart disease)
What are the signs and symptoms of a B-6 deficiency?
- Anemia (similar to iron deficient anemia)
- Depression (if neurotransmitter synthesis is interrupted)
Who is at risk for a B-6 Deficiency?
The elderly, blacks, smokers, users of oral contraceptives, alcoholics, and those who are underweight or consume poor diets are at risk for what?
What are the concerns with consistent high doses of B-6?
Nerve problems in hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy)
What is microcytic hypochromic anemia?
Impared heme production due to B-6 deficiency can cause the production of small pale blood cells
What is the difference between folate and folic acid?
Folate naturally occurs in foods (like Kale and other green leafy veggies, and Folic Acid is the synthesized form)
What foods have the highest bioavailability, and largest amount of folate?
Liver, legumes, and leafy green veggies (also oranges/juice and avocados) are the most bioavailable and have the largest amount of what?
What is the difference in the bioavailability of folate from food sources and folic acid?
From a mixed diet the bioavailability of folate is 50% as compared to folic acid (but may be closer to 80%)
What are the functions of folate in the body?
The co-enzymes of what vitamin are required for the synthesis and maintenance of new cells, DNA synthesis, and amino acid metabolism?
What is the name of the central co-enzyme form of folate?
What is tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA)
What is DFE?
Dietary Folate Equivalent is how they express the RDA of folate, it represents the absorption of folate as compared to folic acid.
What is the DFE formula?
DFE = micrograms food folate + (micrograms folic acid *1.7)
What are the signs/symptoms of folate deficiency?
- Megaloblastic anemia
- Neural tube defects
Who is at risk for folate deficiency?
What are reliable food sources for B-12?
Animal products (esp. organ meats), fortified foods
How is B-12 absorbed?
- Mouth: salivary glands produce R-protein
- Stomach: HCl and pepsin release vitamin B-12 bound to protein in food, free vitamin B-12 binds with R-protein, parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor
- Small intestine: Trypsin from the pancrease releases R-protein from vitamin B-12, Vitamin B-12 links with intrinsic factor
- Ileum: B-12/intrinsic factor complex is absorbed into blood and binds to transport protein transcobalamin II
- Liver: B-12 is stored in the liver
What are the key functions of B-12?
- 1. formation of the amino acid methionine from the amino acid homocysyteine is catalyzed by the enzyme methiomine synthase, which requires B-12 co-enzyme methylcobalamin.
- 2. Allows fatty acids with an odd # of carbons to be oxidized in the citric acid cycle and to provide energy
What are the signs and symptoms of B-12 deficiency?
- Pernicious anemia (due to inadequate intrinsic factor)
- Megaloblast anemia
- Nerve degeneration
- High levels of homocysteine in blood
Who is at risk for B-12 deficiency?
- or those with malabsorption problems
- Infants breast fed by vegan/vegetarians
How is B-12 deficiency treated?
- 1. montly injections
- 2. nasal gel
- 3. very high doses (1 to 2 mg)
What are the major functions of Choline?
- A component of phospholipids
- precursor for acetylcholine
- methyl donor
- helps prevent neural tube defects
- prevents inflamation
what are the symptoms of Choline deficiency?
no deficiency disease is associated with choline
What are the concerns with choline toxicity?
- fishy body odor
- low blood pressure
- GI tract effects
What are the main functions of vitamin C in the body?
- Collagen synthesis
- Blood clotting
- Wound healing
- Synthesis of other vital compounds
- Iron absorption
- Immune funtion
What is the role of vit. C in collagen synthesis?
It is needed to get the three strands into the right shape to form the triple helix.
Why do people who smoke need more vitamin C?
Because they need the added antioxidant help and it helps get nicotine out of the system.
What is the proposed roll of C in lowering risk for heart disease?
Because it is an antioxidant
What is the impact of vit C on the common cold?
WHat are the signs and symptoms of vit C deficiency?
- Poor wound healing
- pinpoint hemorrhages
- bleeding gums
who is at risk for vit C deficiency?
- individuals who eat few fruits and veggies
What are the concerns with taking vit C above the UL?
Major forms of A
- preformed retinoids
- provitamin A cartenoids
Vit A functions
- Vision in dim light
- and color vision
- cell differentiation
- bone growth
VIt A deficiency symptoms
- poor growth
- night blindness
- total blindness
- dry skin
- impaired immune function
People at risk for vit. A deficiency
Rare in US but common in preschool children living in poverty in developing coutries and patients with fat malabsorption syndromes
Sources of Vit A retinoids
- fortified milk
- fish liver oils
Sources for provitamin A (cartenoids)
- red, orange, dark green, and yellow veggies
- orange fruits
Vit. A toxicity symptoms
- double vision
- dry mucous membranes
- bone and joint pain
- liver damage
- spontaneous abortions
- birth defects
Other names/forms of vit. D
Functions of vit D
- Maintenance of calcium and phosphorus concentrations
- immune function
- cell cycle regulation
Deficiency symptoms for vitamin D
- Osteomalacia (older adults)
People at risk for vit D deficiency
- Dark-skinned individuals
- older adults w/low intakes or low UV exposure
- patients with fat malabsorption syndromes
VIt D sources
- Vit-D fortified milk
- fish oils
- oily fish
Vit. D toxicity symptoms
- calcification of soft tissues, impaired growth
- excess calcium in the blood
- excretion in the urine