Ornithology Lecture 1
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Dr. Sue Haig
- USGS biologist
- president of American Ornithologists' Union
- Biological species concept
What is the taxonomic information for birds (Domain-Class)
How many bird families are there?
How many bird genera are there?
How many species of birds are there (approx)?
- Lumpers group species together despite variation
- Splitters separate by variation (esp. DNA)
Birds in Art
40,000 year old paintins in Australia, Apache rock paintings, CP, "The Birds", etc
- Englishman who lived in VA
- Published Natural History of Caroline, Florida and the Bahama Islands in mid 1700s.
- First published work on the flora and fauna of NA
- Still pictures
First published work on the flora and fauna of NA
Natural History of Caroline, Florida and Bahama Islands
by Mark Catesby
- Wrote American Onithology (early 1800s)
- "The Father of American Ornithology)
- Son of a Scottish smuggler
- more life in illustrations than Catesby
John James Audobon
- Wrote Birds of America
- life-sized prints (elephant-folio)
- more artistic, brought birds to life
- Showed birds in action and detailed life history
- 1859: Origin of Species
- based his theory on morphological characteristics of Galapagos finches
Margaret Morse Nice
- Wrote The Birds of Oklahoma in 1931; it was the first written organized record of species in OK
- Pioneered the techniques for observing animals in the wild
- Lived in Norman, where her husband was on the OU faculty.
- First female president of the Wilson Ornithological Society
George Miksch "Doc" Sutton
- great illustrator and writer
- Important in OK ornithology
US State Societies
- Ex. Oklahoma Ornithological Societypublishes the Bulletin of the Oklahoma Ornithological Society (BOOS)
Arthur A. "Doc" Allen
- Founder of Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology
- only systematic study of ivory billed woodpeckers (produced only recordings and videos)
- started citizen scientist mvt
1936 study of ivory billed woodpeckers in a Louisianna swap
- extinct in the wild in 1885
- large colonies were easily targeted
- development of railways allowed quick transportation.
- Habitat loss
sold bird feathers for use in hats
- ornithologist who found 40 different species on 700 ladies' hats in N
- started Christmas bird count
published first "Audubon" magazine dedicated to raising awareness of the conservation of native birds.
- first 1,000 ladies who came together to protest the use of wild bird feathers.
- got state to pass a law banning sale of wild bird feathers
- late 1800s
- the long feathers taken from breeding herons/egrets
- prized for hats
1903, Teddy Roosevelt established
- first National Wildlife Refuge at Pelican Island, FL
- set up to protect birds from plume hunters
- American Ornithologists' Union paid to hire a warden
Guy Bradley Award
National Wildlife Federation's highest honor
Migratory Bird Treaty Act
- outlaws the hunt, pursuit, capture, annoyance, trade, etc of migratory birds
- requires permit to hunt, band birds, or pick up feathers.
- fattened up before migration (from Alaska, to New England, to South America)
- "doe birds"
- hunted for food.
- "lover of grubs, principally"
- Ivory Billed Woodpecker
- white spots visible when perched
- flew above forest canopy
- 3rd largest woodpecker in the world
Last place in OK with Ivory Billed Woodpecker
- Broken Bow Lake
- was later flooded
History of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker
- observed by Mark Catesby
- specimen caught by Wilson
- Audubon expressed concern for the species in the 1820s
- targeted by collectors and for their feathers
- Cornell expedition
- estimated 22 individuals left
- Doc Allen, Doc Sutton, Lekkogg, Tanner, and Kuhn.
Year the Ivory Billed Woodpecker went extinct
- area of study for Camp Ephilus
- sold by Singer to Chicago Mill
- Conservation groups gathered enough money to buy it, but the Chicago Mill refused to sell.
Territory required for 1 Ivory-billed territory
- territory required for 36 Pileated Woodpeckers
- and 126 Red-headed Woodpeckers
- a sighting occurred at Pearl River with 2 Ivory Billed Woodpeckers
- lead to Zeiss Expedition
Common Birds in OK in freefall
- Northern Bobwhite
- Eastern Meadowlark
- Loggerhead Shrike
- Field Sparrow
- Grasshopper Sparrow
- ALL OF THEM ARE GRASSLAND BIRDS
How do humans contribute to bird deaths?
- landscape conversion
- invasive species
- building collisions
Window Collision Mortality Estimate
- 1-10 individuals per building per year
- schools, Pentagon, all count as 1 building making for a conservative study.
- 100 million- 1 billion bird deaths
Noble Research Center study by Tim O'Connell
- 4 year study
- more deaths during fall migration
What statistical test did Millican et all use?
Millican et all conclusion
social interactions can strongly influence foraging behavior
Median estimation of bird mortality due to cat predation
- conducted cat predation study
- incoming faculty member
Rare birds in Oklahoma
- Whooping Crane (E)
- Interior Least Tern (E)
- Red-cockaded Woodpecker (E)
- Black-capped Vireo (E)
- Piping Plover (T)
Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation
USFWS-lef initiatives to build cooperative endeavors among federal agencies, state agencies, NGOs, etc
- proposed new geologic era we are currently in
- characterested by human cultural dominance
- debated start date; unsure if it starts with agriculture or industrialization.
- primarily proposed by Paul Crutzen
Number of described species on Earth
- Primary mechanism for evolutionary chage
- Depends on inherited variability of traits which may be more advantageous and allow individuals to produce more offspring.
acts upon individuals
acts on populations
exchange of genetic material within a population
evolutionary history of an organism
field of study that seeks to reconstruct phylogenies
change over time within a single lingeage (from one ancestor)
Types of reproductive isolating mechanisms
- Pre-mating: mating not even attempted
- Post-mating: individuals capable of mating, but either have offspring that are sterile or not viable.
Positive Assortative Mating
courtship behaviors directed toward phenotypically similar individuals
Negative Assortative Mating
courtship behaviors directed toward phenotypically dissimilar individuals
- Binomial nomenclature
- each species is given a name in Greek or Latin consisting of a capitalized name indicated the genus and a lower case name indicating the species
- structures that develop though convergent evolution
- often used in phenetics
indicate a common evolutionary origin, regardless of how the structure appears
process through which one taxon gives rise to many others that exploit availableniches.
two or more discrete phenotypes in a sympatric population
repeated sequences of 1–6 base pairs of DNA. High mutation rates result in lots ofpolymorphisms – in other words, there are lots of different alleles to examine in a microsatellite. Thesecan indicate genetic diversity within populations of the same species.
Zink et al. conclusion
dispersal is happening without human intervention.
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