Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy

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Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
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Definitions chapters 1-4
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  1. For counselors who work with culturally diverse client populations, it is especially important to:
    be aware of their own cultural heritage, have a broad base of counseling techniques that can be employed with flexibility, consider the cultural context of their clients in determining what interventions are appropriate, examine their assumptions pertaining to Cultural values
  2. In the text, reason(s) given for having counseling students receive some form of psychotherapy include:
    Learning to work through early childhood trauma, learning to deal with countertransference, becoming a self-actualized individual.
  3. With respect to the role of values in the counseling process, it is most accurate to state that:
    Counselors avoid imposing their values, but they are likely to expose their values to clients.
  4. Culturally competent counselors are not likely to:
    Make assumptions about an individual based on his or her cultural group.
  5. Which of the following are effective multicultural counseling practices?
    Both counselors feel comfortable with their clients' values and beliefs and counselors are aware of how their own biases could affect ethnic minority clients.
  6. Most ethics codes state that dual relationships:
    should be minimized, but are not inherently unethical.
  7. According to research, which of the following is not considered a trait of the effective counselor?
    Effective counselors have experienced their own personal therapy during their training program.
  8. Personal therapy for the therapist:
    is helpful in working through personal conflicts.
  9. Which of the following is not considered an essential skill of a culturally effective counselor?
    Being able to get clients to intensify their feelings by helping them to vividly reexperience early childhood events.
  10. According to the text, ________ includes taking responsibility for self-care and preventing burnout.
    staying alive as a person and as a professional
  11. During psychoanalytic treatment, clients are discouraged from:
    Making major changes in their lifestyle.
  12. Countertransference refers to the:
    The therapist’s unconscious emotional responses to a client that are likely to interfere with objectivity
  13. The famous therapists who used the psychoanalytic model of therapy?
    Sigmund Freud, Heinz Kohut, Margaret Mahler, Otto Kernberg
  14. Individuals who display grandiose ideas, seek attention and admiration from others, and who are extremely angered when others do not recognize their worth likely have which of the following?
    Narcissistic personality disorder
  15. Which term refers to the repetition of interpretations and the overcoming of resistance so that clients can resolve neurotic patterns?
    Working through
  16. How does the ego-defense mechanism of identification help a person cope with anxiety?
    Both it protects them from a sense of being a failure and it enhances their feelings of self-worth.
  17. Which of the following ego-defense mechanisms is a way of burying a disapproving thought or behavior?
    Repression
  18. If an infant's needs are not met, the infant will develop a sense of:
    Mistrust.
  19. The "fundamental rule" of psychoanalysis involves clients:
    Saying whatever comes to mind without censoring. (free association)
  20. Which of the following did Adler emphasize?
    The importance of community, the direction people are headed toward, and a unique style of life that is an expression of life goals.
  21. The concept of fictional finalism refers to:
    an imagined central goal that guides a person's behavior.
  22. What are the essential aspects of the therapeutic process in Adlerian counseling?
    Exploring the client's family constellation, exploring faulty assumptions, reeducation of the client toward constructive goals, and offering encouragement
  23. What are the contributions of the Adlerian approach?
    The ability to be applied to a diverse range of clients in various settings, the impact of Adler's ideas on other therapy approaches, the application to group counseling, and the shift from a deterministic view of human nature to a phenomenological orientation.
  24. ________ refers to an individual's basic orientation to life, or one's personality, and includes the themes that characterize the person's existence.
    Lifestyle
  25. Four central objectives that correspond to the four phases of the Adlerian therapeutic process includes:
    Establishing the relationship; exploring the individual's dynamics; encouraging self-understanding and insight; helping with reorientation.
  26. Which child tends to behave as if he or she were in a race and appears to be in training to surpass an older sibling?
    The second child
  27. Which child generally receives a good deal of attention, tends to be dependable and hard-working, and strives to keep ahead?
    The oldest child
  28. The process of therapists seeing in their clients patterns of their own behavior, overidentifying with clients, or meeting their own needs through their clients.
    Countertransference
  29. The values and behaviors shared by a group of individuals.
    Culture
  30. An ongoing process that involves a practitioner developing awareness of beliefs and attitudes, acquiring knowledge about race and culture, and learning skills and intervention strategies necessary to work effectively with culturally diverse populations.
    Diversity-competent practitioner
  31. The ability to pay attention to what one is thinking, feeling, and doing. This is a crucial first step in self-care.
    Self-monitoring
  32. Refers to counselors directly attempting to define a client's values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
    Value imposition
  33. A higher level of ethical practice that addresses doing what is in the best interests of clients.
    Aspirational Ethics
  34. Evaluating the relevant factors in a client's life to identify themes for further exploration in the counseling process.
    Assessment
  35. This is an ethical concept, and in most states therapists also have a legal duty not to disclose information about a client.
    Confidentiality
  36. Identifying a specific mental disorder based on a pattern of symptoms that leads to a specific diagnosis; sometimes part of the assessment process.
    Diagnosis
  37. A counselor assumes two (or more) roles simultaneously or sequentially with a client. This may involve assuming more than one professional role or combining professional and nonprofessional roles.
    Dual or multiple relationships
  38. To make ethical decisions, consult with colleagues, keep yourself informed about laws affecting your practice, keep up to date in your specialty field, stay abreast of developments in ethical practice, reflect on the impact your values have on your practice, and be willing to engage in honest self-examination.
    Ethical decisions
  39. Psychotherapists are required to base their practice on techniques that have empirical evidence to support their efficacy.
    Evidence-based practice (EBP)
  40. The right of clients to be informed about their therapy and to make autonomous decisions pertaining to it.
    Informed Constent
  41. The view of ethical practice that deals with the minimum level of professional practice.
    Mandatory ethics
  42. Additional relationships with clients other than sexual ones.
    Nonprofessional interactions
  43. An approach taken by practitioners who want to do their best for clients rather than simply meet minimum standards to stay out of trouble.
    Positive ethics
  44. Using data generated during treatment to inform the process and outcome of treatment.
    Practiced-based evidence
  45. A legal concept that generally bars the disclosure of confidential communications in a legal proceeding.
    Privileged communication
  46. The analysis and explanation of a client's problems. It may include an explanation of the causes of the client's difficulties, an account of how these problems developed over time, a classification of any disorders, a specification of preferred treatment procedure, and an estimate of the chances for a successful resolution.
    Psychodiagnosis
  47. The second stage of psychosexual development, when pleasure is derived from retaining and expelling feces.
    Anal stage
  48. An elaborate explanation of human nature that combines ideas from history, mythology, anthropology, and religion.
    Analytical psychology
  49. The biological and psychological aspects of masculinity and femininity, which are thought to coexist in both sexes.
    Animus (anima)
  50. A feeling of impending doom that results from repressed feelings, memories, desires, and experiences emerging to the surface of awareness. From a psychoanalytic perspective, there are three kinds of anxiety: reality, neurotic, and moral anxiety.
    Anxiety
  51. The images of universal experiences contained in the collective unconscious.
    Archetypes
  52. An anonymous stance assumed by classical psychoanalysts aimed at fostering transference.
    Blank screen
  53. A disorder characterized by instability, irritability, self-destructive acts, impulsivity, and extreme mood shifts. Such people lack a sense of their own identity and do not have a deep understanding of others.
    Borderline personality disorder
  54. An adaptation of the principles of psychoanalytic theory and therapy aimed at treating selective disorders within a preestablished time limit.
    Brief psychodynamic therapy (BPT)
  55. The traditional (Freudian) approach to psychoanalysis based on a long-term exploration of past conflicts, many of which are unconscious, and an extensive process of working through early wounds.
    Classical psychoanalysis
  56. From a Jungian perspective, the deepest level of the psyche that contains an accumulation of inherited experiences.
    Collective unconscious
  57. An ego-defense mechanism that consists of masking perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations.
    Compensation
  58. Newer formulations of psychoanalytic theory that share some core characteristics of classical analytic theory, but with different applications of techniques; extensions and adaptations of orthodox psychoanalysis.
    Contemporary psychoanalysis
  59. The therapist's unconscious emotional responses to a client that are likely to interfere with objectivity; unresolved conflicts of the therapist that are projected onto the client.
    Countertransference
  60. According to Erikson, a turning point in life when we have the potential to move forward or to regress. At these turning points, we can either resolve our conflicts or fail to master the developmental task.
    Crisis
  61. A Freudian concept that refers to a tendency of individuals to harbor an unconscious wish to die or hurt themselves or others; accounts for the aggressive drive.
    Death instincts
  62. In denial there is an effort to suppress unpleasant reality. It consists of coping with anxiety by closing our eyes to the existence of anxiety-producing reality.
    Denial
  63. A blend of cognitive behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques that generally involves a minimum of one year of treatment.
    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
  64. An ego-defense mechanism that entails redirection of some emotion from a real source to a substitute person or object.
    Displacement
  65. A technique for uncovering unconscious material and giving clients insight into some of their unresolved problems. Therapists participate with clients in exploring dreams and in interpreting possible meanings.
    Dream analysis
  66. The process by which the latent content of a dream is transformed into the less threatening manifest content.
    Dream work
  67. The part of the personality that is the mediator between external reality and inner demands.
    Ego
  68. The psychosocial approach of Erik Erikson, which emphasizes the development of the ego or self at various stages of life.
    Ego psychology
  69. Intrapsychic processes that operate unconsciously to protect the person from threatening and, therefore, anxiety-producing thoughts, feelings, and impulses. Ego-defense
    mechanisms
  70. The condition of being arrested, or stuck, at one level of psychosexual development.
    Fixation
  71. A primary technique, consisting of spontaneous and uncensored verbalization by the client, which gives clues to the nature of the client's unconscious conflicts.
    Free association
  72. The final stage of psychosexual development, usually attained at adolescence, in which heterosexual interests and activities are generally predominant.
    Genital stage
  73. The part of personality, present at birth, that is blind, demanding, and insistent. Its function is to discharge tension and return to homeostasis.
    Id
  74. A theory stating that instincts and intrapsychic conflicts are the basic factors shaping personality development (both normal and abnormal).
    Id psychology
  75. As an ego defense, this may involve individuals identifying themselves with successful causes in the hope that they will be seen as worthwhile.
    Identification
  76. A developmental challenge, occurring during adolescence, whereby the person seeks to establish a stable view of self and to define a place in life.
    Identity crisis
  77. The harmonious integration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality.
    Individuation
  78. A technique used to explore the meanings of free association, dreams, resistances, and transference feelings.
    Interpretation
  79. A process of taking in the values and standards of others.
    Introjection
  80. A period of psychosexual development, following the phallic stage, that is relatively calm before the storm of adolescence.
    Latency stage
  81. Our hidden, symbolic, and unconscious motives, wishes, and fears.
    Latent content
  82. The instinctual drives of the id and the source of psychic energy; Freudian notion of the life instincts.
    Libido
  83. Instincts oriented toward growth, development, and creativity that serve the purpose of the survival of the individual and the human race.
    Life instincts
  84. Refers to a range of procedures, such as an analyst's anonymity, regularity, and consistency of meetings, as a structure for therapy.
    Maintaining the analytic frame
  85. The dream as it appears to the dreamer.
    Manifest content
  86. The fear of one's own conscience; people with a well-developed conscience tend to feel guilty when they do something contrary to their moral code.
    Moral anxiety
  87. A process whereby group members develop intense feelings for certain others in a group; an individual may see in others some significant figure such as a parent, life-partner, ex-lover, or boss.
    Multiple transferences
  88. Extreme self-love, as opposed to love of others. A narcissistic personality is characterized by a grandiose and exaggerated sense of self-importance and an exploitive attitude toward others, which hides a poor self-concept.
    Narcissism
  89. Characterized by a grandiose and exaggerated sense of self-importance and an exploitive attitude toward others, which serve the function of masking a frail self-concept.
    Narcissistic personality
  90. The fear that the instincts will get out of hand and cause one to do something for which one will be punished.
    Neurotic anxiety
  91. Interpersonal relationships as they are represented intrapsychically.
    Object relatedness
  92. A newer version of psychoanalytic thinking, which focuses on predictable developmental sequences in which early experiences of self shift in relation to an expanding awareness of others. It holds that individuals go through phases of autism, normal symbiosis, and separation and individuation, culminating in a state of integration.
    Object-relations theory
  93. The initial phase of psychosexual development, during which the mouth is the primary source of gratification; a time when the infant is learning to trust or mistrust the world.
    Oral stage
  94. The mask we wear, or public face we present, as a way to protect ourselves.
    Persona
  95. The third phase of psychosexual development, during which the child gains maximum gratification through direct experience with the genitals.
    Phallic stage
  96. The idea that the id is driven to satisfy instinctual needs by reducing tension, avoiding pain, and gaining pleasure.
    Pleasure principle
  97. An ego-defense mechanism that involves attributing our own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and motives to others.
    Projection
  98. Psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy involves a shortening and simplifying of the lengthy process of psychoanalysis.
    Psychodynamic psychotherapy
  99. The interplay of opposing forces and intrapsychic conflicts that provide a basis for understanding human motivation.
    Psychodynamics
  100. The Freudian chronological phases of development, beginning in infancy. Each is characterized by a primary way of gaining sensual and sexual gratification.
    Psychosexual stages
  101. Erikson's turning points, from infancy through old age. Each presents psychological and social tasks that must be mastered if maturation is to proceed in a healthy fashion.
    Psychosocial stages
  102. An ego-defense mechanism whereby we attempt to justify our behavior by imputing logical motives to it.
    Rationalization
  103. A defense against a threatening impulse, involving actively expressing the opposite impulse.
    Reaction formation
  104. The fear of danger from the external world; the level of such anxiety is proportionate to the degree of real threat.
    Reality anxiety
  105. The idea that the ego does realistic and logical thinking and formulates plans of action for satisfying needs.
    Reality principle
  106. An ego-defense mechanism whereby an individual reverts to a less mature form of behavior as a way of coping with extreme stress.
    Regression
  107. An analytic model based on the assumption that therapy is an interactive process between client and therapist. The interpersonal analyst assumes that countertransference is a source of information about the client's character and dynamics.
    Relational analysis
  108. A model that characterizes therapy as an interactive process between client and therapist in which countertransference provides an important source of information about the client's character and dynamics.
    Relational model
  109. The ego-defense mechanism whereby threatening or painful thoughts or feelings are excluded from awareness.
    Repression
  110. The client's reluctance to bring to awareness threatening unconscious material that has been repressed.
    Resistance
  111. A theory that emphasizes how we use interpersonal relationships (self objects) to develop our own sense of self.
    Self psychology
  112. A Jungian archetype representing thoughts, feelings, and actions that we tend to disown by projecting them outward.
    Shadow
  113. An ego defense that involves diverting sexual or aggressive energy into other channels that are socially acceptable.
    Sublimation
  114. That aspect of personality that represents one's moral training. It strives for perfection, not pleasure.
    Superego
  115. Through this form of psychoanalytically oriented therapy, clients gain a sense of what it is like to interact more fully and flexibly within the therapy situation. They are helped to apply to the outside world what they are learning in the office.
    Time-limited dynamic psychotherapy (TLDP)
  116. The client's unconscious shifting to the therapist of feelings and fantasies, both positive and negative, that are displacements from reactions to significant others from the client's past.
    Transference
  117. The transfer of feelings originally experienced in an early relationship to other important people in a person's present environment.
    Transference relationship
  118. That aspect of psychological functioning or of personality that houses experiences, wishes, impulses, and memories in an out-of-awareness state as a protection against anxiety.
    Unconscious
  119. A process of resolving basic conflicts that are manifested in the client's relationship with the therapist; achieved by the repetition of interpretations and by exploring forms of resistance.
    Working through
  120. An intervention that is concise, deliberate, direct, efficient, focused, short-term, and purposeful.
    Adlerian brief therapy
  121. Faulty, self-defeating perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs that may have been appropriate at one time but are no longer useful. These are myths that are influential in shaping personality.
    Basic mistakes
  122. Adler identified five psychological positions from which children tend to view life: oldest, second of only two, middle, youngest, and only. Actual birth order itself is less important than a person's interpretation of his or her place in the family.
    Birth order
  123. An individual's awareness of being part of the human community. Community feeling embodies the sense of being connected to all humanity and to being committed to making the world a better place.
    Community feeling
  124. Childhood memories (before the age of 9) of one-time events. People retain these memories as capsule summaries of their present philosophy of life. From a series of early recollections, it is possible to understand mistaken notions, present attitudes, social interests, and possible future behavior.
    Early recollections
  125. The process of increasing one's courage to face life tasks; used throughout therapy as a way to counter discouragement and to help people set realistic goals.
    Encouragement
  126. The climate of relationships among family members.
    Family atmosphere
  127. The social and psychological structure of the family system; includes birth order, the individual's perception of self, sibling characteristics and ratings, and parental relationships. Each person forms his or her unique view of self, others, and life through the family constellation.
    Family constellation
  128. An imagined central goal that gives direction to behavior and unity to the personality; an image of what people would be like if they were perfect and perfectly secure.
    Fictional finalism
  129. A congruence between the client's and the counselor's goals and the collaborative effort of two persons working equally toward specific, agreed-on goals.
    Goal alignment
  130. Another term for fictional finalism, which represents an individual's image of a goal of perfection.
    Guiding self-ideal
  131. We cannot be understood in parts; all aspects of ourselves must be understood in relation to each other.
    Holistic concept
  132. Adler's original name for his approach that stressed understanding the whole person, how all dimensions of a person are interconnected, and how all these dimensions are unified by the person's movement toward a life goal.
    Individual Psychology
  133. The early determining force in behavior; the source of human striving and the wellspring of creativity. Humans attempt to compensate for both imagined and real inferiorities, which helps them overcome handicaps.
    Inferiority feelings
  134. A special form of awareness that facilitates a meaningful understanding within the therapeutic relationship and acts as a foundation for change.
    Insight
  135. Understanding clients' underlying motives for behaving the way they do in the here and now.
    Interpretation
  136. Universal problems in human life, including the tasks of friendship (community), work (a division of labor), and intimacy (love and marriage).
    Life tasks
  137. The core beliefs and assumptions through which the person organizes his or her reality and finds meaning in life events. Our perceptions of self, others, and the world. Our characteristic way of thinking, acting, feeling, living, and striving toward long-term goals.
    Lifestyle
  138. The process of gathering early memories, which involves learning to understand the goals and motivations of the client.
    Lifestyle assessment
  139. Adlerians seek basic information about the client's life as a part of the lifestyle assessment process.
    Objective interview
  140. Focus on the way people perceive their world. For Adlerians, objective reality is less important than how people interpret reality and the meanings they attach to what they experience.
    Phenomenological approach
  141. Basic convictions and assumptions of the individual that underlie the lifestyle pattern and explain how behaviors fit together to provide consistency.
    Private logic
  142. The phase of the counseling process in which clients are helped to discover a new and more functional perspective and are encouraged to take risks and make changes in their lives.
    Reorientation
  143. A sense of identification with humanity; a feeling of belonging; an interest in the common good.
    Social interest
  144. A strong inclination toward becoming competent, toward mastering the environment, and toward self-improvement. The striving for perfection (and superiority) is a movement toward enhancement of self.
    Striving for superiority
  145. An individual's way of thinking, feeling, and acting; a conceptual framework by which the world is perceived and by which people are able to cope with life tasks; the person's personality.
    Style of life
  146. The process whereby the counselor helps clients tell their life story as completely as possible.
    Subjective interview
  147. Used in an initial assessment to gain understanding of the purpose that symptoms or actions have in a person's life. The question is, How would your life be different, and what would you do differently, if you did not have this symptom or problem?
    The question

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