Advanced Anatomy- Spring 2013

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Author:
Shannonsparrow
ID:
199256
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Advanced Anatomy- Spring 2013
Updated:
2013-02-10 19:09:58
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Anatomy
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Description:
All the muscles of the body. Incl. embyrologic origin. Will probably add innervation later on.
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  1. Sympathetic ganglia (outside of trunk)
    Celiac, Aorticorenal, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric
  2. nasalis
    • Action: Flares and compresses notstrils
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
  3. orbicularis oculi
    • Action: Closes eyelids, orbital part for squinting and palpebral part for blinking.
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
  4. Frontalis
    • Action: Elevates eyebrows, elevates and wrinkles forehead
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
  5. levator labii superioris
    • Action: Lifts upper lip
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • Innervation: CN VII- facial nerve
  6. levator labii superioris alauque nasi
    • Action: Elevates upper lip and dilates nostril
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • innervation: facial nerve (CN VII)
  7. orbicularis oris
    • Action: Closes and protrudes lips (i.e. purses them during whistling)
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • Innervation: Facial nerve (CN VII)
  8. Trapezius
    • Action: Elevates, upwardly rotates, and retract (adduct) scapulae. Lower fibers depress scapluae
    • Origin: Posterior arch
    • innervation: CN XI- Accessory nerve
  9. Sternocleidomastoid
    • Action: Laterally flexes head to one side and rotates it to opposite side
    • Origin: Posterior arch
    • innervation: CN XI- Accessory Nerve
  10. Buccinator
    • Action:Presses cheek against molars
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • innervation: CN VII- facial nerve
  11. Mentallis
    • Action: Elevates and protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • innervation: CN VII- facial nerve
  12. Platysma
    • Actions: Depresses mandible and tenses skin of lower face and neck.
    • Origin: 2nd arch
    • innervation: CN VII- facial nerve
  13. Muscularis uvulae
    • Action: Tenses soft palate, pulls uvula superiorly
    • origin: 4th arch
    • innervation: CN X- Vagus nerve
  14. Palatopharyngeus
    • action: Tenses soft palate; pulls walls of pharynx superiorly, anteriorly, and medially while swallowing
    • origin: 4th arch 
    • innervation: CN X- Vagus nerve
  15. levator veli palatini
    • actions: elevates soft palate during swallowing
    • origin: 4th arch
    • innervation: CN X- Vagus nerve
  16. tensor veli palatini
    • Action: Tenses soft palate and opens auditory tube when yawning or swallowing
    • origin: 1st arch
    • innervation: CN V (3)- Mandibular nerve (Branch of trigeminal)
  17. styloglossus
    • Action: retracts tongue and draws it up for swallowing
    • origin: Occipital somite
    • innervation: CN XII- hypoglossal
  18. hyoglossus
    • Action: Depresses and retracts tongue
    • origin: Occipital somite
    • innervation: CN XII- hypoglossal nerve
  19. Genioglossus
    • Action: Depresses and protrudes tongue
    • Origin: Occipital somite
    • innervation: CN XII- Hypoglossal nerve
  20. sternothyroid
    • action: depresses larynx after swallowing
    • origin: hypaxial ventral muscle in cervical region
    • innervation: c2 and c3 from ansa cervicalis
  21. mylohyoid
    • action: elevates hyoid bone, floor of mouth, and tongue during swallowing and speaking
    • origin: 1st arch
    • innervation: CN V (3)- Mandibular nerve (branch of trigeminal)
  22. omohyoid
    • action: depresses, retracts, and fixes hyoid
    • origin: hypaxial
    • innervation: c1-c3 from ansa cervicalis
  23. thyrohyoid
    • Action: Depresses hyoid bone and elevates larynx when hyoid is fixed
    • origin: hypaxial
    • innervation: c1 via hypoglossal nerve
  24. sternohyoid
    • action: depresses hyoid bone after swallowing
    • origin: Hypaxial ventral cervical
    • innervation: c1-c3 from ansa cervicalis
  25. What are the subvertebral hypaxial muscles of the thorax?
    • Longus colli
    • Absent in lower half
  26. Which small hypaxial muscles were inappropriately named and why?
    intertranversarii cervicis anteriores and posteriores laterales and intertransversarii lumborum lateralus anterior and posterior.

    These muscles were inapproprately named because they are hypaxial and are really just intercostals.
  27. Name the lateral hypaxial muscles of the pelvis/perineum that are found in the internal layer.
    • Levator ani
    • Coccygeus
  28. Name the lateral hypaxial muscles of the pelvis/perineum that are found in the middle layer.
    • Tranversus perinei profundus
    • sphincter urethrae
    • Deep external anal sphincter
    • obturator internus
  29. Name the lateral hypaxial muscles of the pelvis/perineum that are found in the supracostal layer.
    This layer is absent in the pelvis/ perineum 
  30. Name the lateral hypaxial muscles of the pelvis/perineum that are found in the external layer.
    • ischiocavernosus
    • bulbospongiosus
    • superficial external anal sphincter
    • transverse perinei superficialis
    • obturator externus
  31. Name the lateral hypaxial muscles of the abdomen and what layer they are found in.
    • Serratus posterior inferior- supracostal layer
    • external oblique, superficial lamina- supracostal layer
    • external oblique, deep lamina- external layer
    • internal oblique- middle layer
    • cremaster- middle layer
    • intertransversarii lumborum lateralis posteriores- middle layer
    • tranversus abdominis- internal layer
    • quadratus lumborum- internal layer
    • intertransversarii lumborum lateralis anteriores- internal layer
  32. Name the lateral hypaxial muscles of the thorax and what layer they are found in.
    • serratus posterior superior- supracostal layer
    • serratus anterior- supracostal layer
    • external intercostal- external layer
    • internal intercostal- middle layer
    • innermost intercostal- inner layer
    • tranversus thoracis- inner layer
    • subcostal- inner layer
    • diaphragm- inner layer
  33. Name the lateral hypaxial muscles of the cervical region and what layer they are found in.
    • levator scapulae- supracostal layer
    • posterior scalene- external layer
    • middle scalene- middle layer
    • rectus capitis lateralus- middle layer
    • intertranversarii cervicis posteriores laterales- middle layer
    • anterior scalene- internal layer
    • intertransversarii cervicis anteriores- internal layer
  34. What are the subvertebral hypaxial muscles of the pelvis/perineum?
    Absent (Psoas is annexed by lower limb)
  35. What are the subvertebral hypaxial muscles of the abdomen?
    • Psoas major
    • Psoas minor
  36. What are the subvertebral hypaxial muscles of the cervical region?
    • Longus capitis
    • longus colli
    • rectus capitis anterior
  37. What are the ventral hypaxial muscles of the pelvis/perineum?
    Absent- Terminates on pubic crest
  38. What are the ventral hypaxial of the abdomen?
    • Rectus abdominis
    • Pyramidalis
  39. What are the ventral hypaxial muscles of the thoracic region?
    Sternalis
  40. What are the ventral hypaxial muscles in the cervical region of the trunk (5)?
    • sternohyoid
    • sternothyroid
    • thyrohyoid
    • omohyoid
    • geniohyoid
  41. Digastric
    • Actions- Depresses mandible, raises hyoid and steadies it during speaking and swallowing
    • origin:anterior belly- 1st arch
    • posterior belly- 2nd arch
    • anterior belly- CN V (3)- Mandibular nerve (branch of trigeminal)
    • posterior belly- CN VII- Facial nerve
  42. stylohyoid
    • action: elevates and retracts hyoid bone
    • origin: 2nd arch
    • innervation: CN VII facial nerve
  43. stylopharyngeus
    • Action: Elevates pharynx and larynx during swallowing and speaking
    • origin: 3rd arch
    • innervation: glossopharyngeal
  44. illiocostalis lumborum
    • action: extends and laterally flexes the lower vertebral column
    • origin: epaxial superficial
    • innervation: Thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
  45. illiocostalis thoracis
    • actions: extends and laterally flexes vertebral column
    • origin: epaxial superficial
    • innervation: dorsal rami of thoracic spinal nerves
  46. illiocostalis cervicis
    • action: extends and hyperextends cervical vertebrae
    • origin: epaxial superficial
    • innervation: c6-c8
  47. splenius cervicis
    • action: laterally flexes and rotates neck toward same side, extends neck
    • origin: epaxial, superficial layer
    • innervation:lower cervical nerves
  48. splenius capitis
    • action: laterally flexes and rotates face to same side
    • origin: epaxial, superficial
    • innervation: middle cervical nerves
  49. serratus posterior inferior
    • action: depresses ribs
    • origin:
    • innervation: t9-t12
  50. serratus posterior superior
    • action: elevates ribs
    • origin:
    • innervation: t1-t4
  51. rhomboid major
    • action: retract scapula, rotate it to depress glenoid cavity, and fix scapula to thoracic wall.
    • origin: 
    • innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve
  52. rhomboid major
    • action: retract scapula, rotate it to depress glenoid cavity, and fix scapula to thoracic wall.
    • origin: 
    • innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve
  53. Levator scapulae
    • action: elevates scapula and tilts glenoid cavity anteriorly
    • origin: hypaxial, lateral, external layer
    • innveration: c3-c4 and dorsal scapular nerve
  54. Latissimus dorsi
    • Action: extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus
    • origin: epaxial? superficial layer
    • innervation: c6-c8
  55. posterior scalene
    • action: flexes neck laterally, elevates second rib
    • origin: hypaxial, lateral, external layer
    • innervation: c6-c8
  56. middle scalene
    • action: flexes neck laterally, elevates first rib
    • origin: hypaxial, lateral, internediate layer
    • innervation: c3-c8
  57. anterior scalene
    • action: flexes neck laterally, elevated first rib
    • origin: hypaxial, lateral, internal layer
    • innervation: c5-c7
  58. longus colli
    • action: flexes cervical vertebrae, allows slight rotation
    • origin: Hypaxial, subvertebral
    • innervation: c2-c6 spinal nerves
  59. Longus capitis
    • action: flexes head
    • origin: hypaxial, subvertebral
    • innervation: c2-c3 spinal nerves
  60. Parasympathetic ganglia
    Ciliary, Pterygopalatine, Otic, Submandibular

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