Unit 1 - Cardiovascular/Circulatory System

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FatNerdd
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Unit 1 - Cardiovascular/Circulatory System
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2013-02-09 23:11:58
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Cardio cardiovascular circulatory system bio 431 physiology anatomy
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Review for Unit 1 (Ch. 18, 19, 20, 21 of 13th edition Totora & Derrickson) for BIO 431.
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  1. Structure and Function of: Blood Vessels (BV's).
    • Structure  
    • Form a closed system of tubes.

    • Function  
    • 1.) Carry blood away from the heart
    • 2.) Transport it to the tissues of the body
    • 3.) Return it to the heart.
  2. Structure and Function of: Arteries
    • Structure 
    • The Wall of an Artery Consists of:
    • 1.) A tunica interna
    • 2.) A tunica media (Maintains elasticity and contractility)
    • 3.) A tunic externa

    • Function 
    • 1.) Carry blood away from the heart to the tissues.
    • 2.) Functional Properties of Arteries:
    •     a.) Elasticity
    •     b.) Contractility
    • 3.) Two Types of Arteries:
    •     a.) Elastic 
    •     b.) Muscular
  3. Functional Properties of Arteries: Elasticity and Contractility.
    • Elasticity 
    • 1) Elastic tissues in tunica interna & media allow arteries to accept blood under great pressure from the contraction of the ventricles
    • 2.) Systemically sends blood .

    • Contractility
    • 1.) Smooth muscle in the tunica interna & media allow arteries to or lumen size.
    • 2.) Limits bleeding from wounds.
  4. Structure and Function of: Elastic Arteries (Conducting Arteries)
    • Structure
    • Large arteries with more fibers and smooth muscle.

    • Function
    • 1.) Pressure reservoir.
    • 2.) Receive blood under pressure, propel it onward.
    • 3.) Called "Conducting" b/c they conduct blood from the heart → medium sized muscular arteries.
  5. Structure and Function of: Muscular Arteries
    • Structure
    • Have ↑ amount of smooth muscle in their walls.

    • Function
    • Distribute blood to various parts of the body.
  6. Structure and Function of: Arterioles
    • Structure
    • Very small (almost microscopic) arteries that deliver blood capillaries

    • Function
    • 1.) Vasoconstrict ( BV lumen size) and vasodilate ( BV lumen size). 
    • 2.) ∴ key role = Regulating blood flow from arteries capillaries
    • 3.) Alter arterial BP.
  7. Structure and Function of: Capillaries
    • Structure
    • 1.) Microscopic vessels that usually connect arterioles & venules.
    • 2.) Only a single layer of cells (endothelium) and a basement mbn.
    • 3.) Blood flow → cap's = regulated by vessels w/ smooth muscle in their walls.
    • 4.) Precap. Sphincters = Rings of smooth muscle fibers (cells)  

    • Function
    • 1.) Permit exchange of nutrients & wastes  the blood & tissue cells via interstitial fluid
    • 2.) Precap. sphinc. regulate blood flow → true cap's.
    • Characteristics
    • 1.) Microcirculation = Blood flow via the capillaries 
    • 2.) Near ~every cell in body, but distrib. varies w/ metab. act. of the tissue
    • 3.) Branch to form extensive cap. network thr/out the tissue.
    • a.) Network ↑'s surface area → allows rapid exch. of large quantities of materials.

    • Types of Cap's:
    • 1.) Continuous 
    • 2.) Fenestrated
    • 3.) Sinusoids
  8. Structure and Function of: Venules
    • Structure
    • 1.) Small vessels formed from union of several cap's.
    • 2.) Ven's merge to form veins.

    • Function
    • Drain blood from cap's  veins.
  9. Structure and Function of: Veins
    • Definition
    • Convey blood from the tissues → heart.

    • Structure
    • 1.) Same 3 as arteries but thinner tunica interna & media, thicker tunica externa.
    • 2.) Have elast. tiss. & smooth muscle.
    • 3.) ∴ thinner-walled than art.'s.
    • 4.) Contain valves to prevent backflow of blood.

    • Other Types
    • 1.) Vascular (venous) sinuses = Veins w/ very thin walls, no smooth muscle to alter their diam's.
    •     a.) (ie brain’s sup. sag. sinus & coronary sinus of the heart)
    • 2.) Varicose veins caused by weak valves.
  10. Structure and Function of: Anastomoses
    • Definition
    • Union of branches of 2+ arteries supplying same region.

    • Structure
    • Consist of 2 veins/a vein & an artery.

    • Function
    • Provide alt. routes for blood tissue/organ.

    • Other Types
    • 1.) Collateral Circulation = Alt. flow of blood a body part via ananastomosis.
    • 2.) End Arteries = Art's that don't anastomose.
    •     a.)Occlusion of an End Artery = Interrupts blood supply to a whole organ segment necrosis (death) segment.
  11. Vasa Vasorum = ?
    • Definition
    • Small BV's that supply blood to cells of walls of the arteries and veins.
  12. At rest, where is the largest portion of blood?
    In systemic veins & venules (Collectively = blood reservoirs).
  13. Fxn of Blood Reservoirs
    • 1.) Stores blood & (Via ven. vasocon.) can move blood → other parts of body if necessary.
    • 2.) Hemorrhage (When BP & volume ↓) → vasocon. of veins in ven. reservoirs help compensate for blood loss.
    • 3.) Principal Reservoirs = Veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) & skin.
  14. Capillary Exchange
    • 1.) Substances enter/leave cap's by diffusion, transcytosis, & bulk flow.
    •     a.) Simple Diffusion = Most important method of cap. exch.
    •         --Subst. (Like O2, CO2, Glucose, AA's, & Hormones) diffuse ↓ their conc. grad's.
    •         --All plasma solutes (Except larger proteins) pass freely most cap. walls.
    •         -- BBB = Prime exception of diffusion of H2O-soluble materials cap. walls.
    •     b.) Transcytosis = enclosing of subst's w/in tiny vesicles that enter cells by endocytosis.
    •     c.) Bulk Flow: Filtration and Reabsorption
    •         --Diffusion = important for solute exch. plasma & IF, Bulk Flow = ↑ important for reg. of relative volumes of blood and IF.
    •         --Balance of filtr. & reabsorp.  IF & plasma = disrupted → allows abnormal ↑ IF (Edema)
  15. Factors Affecting Blood Flow
    • 1.) BP = Pressure on walls of a blood vessel (Clinical use: BP refers to press. in art's).
    • 2.)

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