Final Biology Maccorstin

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Final Biology Maccorstin
2013-06-11 00:23:35
Everything study guide immune system cancer evolution etc

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  1. Skin
    First line of defense; oily and acidic
  2. Major Histocompatibility complex
    Group of genes that code for a protein and help the immune system identify foreign particles
  3. Cell mediated response
    Big wbc macrophage eats invader, displays antigen, helper T-cell binds, releases interleukin which signals to create killer t-cells which inject toxins afterwards regulator t-cells end response, macrophage eats the rest of the bacteria
  4. interleukin
    activating agent which signals killer T-cell replication
  5. Cytotoxic t-cells 
    Killer t-cells  which bind to invaders and inject toxins
  6. B-cells
    Secrete antibodies
  7. Antibody
    Y-shaped protein which binds to antigens to inactivate them
  8. active and passive immunity
    • Passive: Never exposed to pathogen
    • Active: Exposed to pathogen
  9. Mucous membranes
    Tissue layer that secretes mucus
  10. Antigen
    Foreign invaders
  11. Macrophage
    Big white blood cell that eats the invaders and displays a piece on its cell surface
  12. Helper T-cell
    Binds to antigen and secrete interleukin
  13. Humoral response
    B-cells make specific antibodies for diseases, divide into memory b-cells and plasma b-cells, Antibodies destroy antigens, phagocy clean up, memory b-cells remember them
  14. Memory b-cells
    Sub group of b-cell which remembers invaders for next time. Provide quick immunity response.
  15. Immune system causes symptoms of illness thorugh
    • Temperature to kill with heat
    • Mucus to get the pathogens out
    • Cough to get pathogens out
  16. Auto immune Diseases
    When the immune system attacks itself
  17. Allergies
    A hypersensitivity of the immune system; antigen attaches to certain allergen to cause a massive inflammatory response
  18. Vaccines
    Prophylactic: Prevent diseases by giving whole (killed/mutated) or piece of antigen to get memory b-cells 
  19. Antibiotics
    Kill bacteria with protein synthesis but some form a resistance to it
  20. Histamine
    Key substance that causes allergy responses
  21. The three lines of defense in your immune system
    • 1.The cell mediated: Big wbc macrophage eats invader, displays antigen, helper T-cell binds, releases interleukin which signals to create killer t-cells which inject toxins afterwards regulator t-cells end response, macrophage eats the rest of the bacteria
    • 2. The Humoral Response:B-cells make specific antibodies for diseases, divide into memory b-cells and plasma b-cells, Antibodies destroy antigens, phagocy clean up, memory b-cells remember them
    • 3. Integumentary: Includes skin, antimicrobial proteins, Cilia, stomach acid and symbiotic bacteria in the intestines
  22. Transformation
    The genetic alteration of a cell by insertion of foreign DNA, which could be used for curing diseases and building immunity by inserting specifically designed/harvested DNA into animal/human cells.
  23. Meiosis
    • The process of making sex cells. The cell cycle is:
    • Interphase, meiosis I (Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase), Meiosis II (Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase), Interpahse (Chromosomes begin as chromatin which is loose DNA, at the end of interphase DNA is replicated once)
  24. Oogenesis
    • The formation of the egg cell
    • Begins in ovary with formation of primary diploid cell call an oocyte
    • Oocyte makes 4 haploid cells but three go unused as the best is selected to become the egg
  25. Spermatogenesis
    • Process of creating sperm occurring in the testicles
    • Primary diploid spermatocyte undergoes meiosis and makes 4 haploid sperm cells
  26. Dominant and recessive
    • Where one trait (dominant) only needs one allele to be present and the other (recessive) needs both.
    • Some can't be categorized like this because they are co-dominant like blue and green eyes. Or sex linked traits where it men only need one and women need both no matter what
  27. Darwin's natural selection:
    Organisms produce more offspring than can survive, all organisms within a population have variations in their traits, the organisms with the variations best for the environment will survive and pass on their traits (survival of the fittest) This process continues until the entire species begins to evolve.
  28. Oncogenes and tumor suppressors
    • Oncogenes are damaged genes which stimulate cell growth, causing a cancerous tumor
    • Tumor suppressor genes suppress abnormal genes and act as brake pedals to make the cell commit apoptosis.
  29. Restriction enzymes
    Cut DNA at very specific recognitions sequences
  30. Gel electrophoresis
    Separate DNA fragments according to size
  31. Gel electrophoresis and restriction enzymes can be used for
    Testing for cancer, testing for cancer risk genes or any other kind of specific gene
  32. Ecosystem
    Groups of living organism that depend on each other and the environment for survival
  33. Abiotic
    Non-living factors that influence the biotic components of an ecosystem
  34. Autotroph
    Biotic component that creates its own food (producer)
  35. Decomposer
    Biotic composers that break down and recycle organic material back into the environment
  36. Food chain
    • A linked feeding series
    • Producer->primary consumer->secondary consumer
  37. Producer
    Lowest level of the food chain which creates its own food (plant)
  38. Habitat
    Area in which organism live
  39. Niche
    Role an organism plays in an ecosystem
  40. Biotic
    Living components of an ecosystem
  41. Heterotroph
    Biotic component that consumes other organisms for food
  42. Biomes
    • Geographical/climatically similar areas
    • Coniferous forest, tundra, Savannah desert
  43. Food web
    Linked food chain, less linear.
  44. Consumer
    A heterotroph such as an herbivore (primary consumer) or a carnivore (secondary consumer)
  45. Population
    The group/number of a species in an area
  46. Trophic levels
    Level in the food chain where an organism is found
  47. Community
    A group of organisms/population of different species that occupy a particular area and interact with the environment around them
  48. Biotic potential
    The potential growth of a species under perfect conditions
  49. J shaped curve
    exponential growth when population size increases at constant rate because under ideal living conditions
  50. Limiting factor
    A factor in an environment which controls a process, usually growth
  51. Nutrient cycle
    How nutrients move from the environment to the organisms
  52. Exponential growth
    A growth in which the rate is proportional to the increasing number.
  53. Carrying capacity
    The most amount of organisms of a species which can survive over a long period of time in a given environment
  54. Overpopulation
    Having more of a species than what can be sustained.
  55. DDT
    A chlorinated organic insecticide that was used to control malaria carrying mosquitoes but make some resistant
  56. Flower structure
  57. Mendel's laws
    • Principle of dominance
    • Principle of segregation
    • Principle of independent assortment
  58. Mendel's principle of dominance
    Out of 2 alleles the dominant is expressed with one allele and in the presence of a recessive allele will be the only one showing
  59. Mendel's principle of segregation
    A gamete can only carry dominant or recessive traits and there are no blending of mendelian factors.
  60. Principle of independent assortment
    The tow characters are assorting in independent ways.
  61. Punnett squares
  62. Complete dominance
    Always shown when present
  63. Multiple alleles
    Multiple alleles/traits to be inheirited
  64. Bloody type
    The kinds of feelers the blood cells have/accept
  65. Incomplete dominance
    Blended alleles
  66. Pleiotropic
    Gene causes multiple effects
  67. Sex linked traits
    Transferred on the x chromosome
  68. Codominance
    Both alleles show
  69. Polygenic
    Multiple genes control traits
  70. Cancer
    Irregularly shaped unstoppably dividing cells
  71. Cell cycle
    Growth, DNA replication, Organelles made, interphase, mitosis, proteins regulate at checkpoint stages inbetween
  72. Germline
    Inherited mutation
  73. Somatic
    From the body and somatic cells
  74. Proto-oncogenes
    Normal cell growth regulating genes
  75. p53
    Protein that halts cell division
  76. Anueploid
    Abnormal number of chromosomes
  77. Metastasis
    Invasion/spread of cancer
  78. Benign
    Not cancerous, but can become cancerous
  79. Malignant
    Spreading, invading cancer
  80. Cause of mutations
    Environment, diet, smoking etc. Inherited mutation from parents, viruses, chemicals, radiation, hormones
  81. Treatments of cancer
    Radiation therapy. Use a biopsy to test for it
  82. Li Fraumeni Syndrome
    Inherited cancer
  83. DNA Sequence
    Writing out of DNA
  84. Two-hit hypothesis
    Cancer=accumulated mutation result, especially from 2 parent chromosomes
  85. Evidence for evolution
    Fossils of altered versions of animals, differences in the same species based on location, embryo development, molecules showing the past life
  86. Darwin
    Created theory of evolution
  87. Adaptions
    Species evolve to survive in their environment
  88. Coevolution
    Change of biological population triggered by the change of a related population
  89. Divergent evolution
    Separate populations of species evolve seperately
  90. Convergent evolution
    Organisms in the same environment evolve similar adaptations
  91. Biodiversity
    Sum total of all living organisms on the planet
  92. Genetic drift
    Change in gene pool
  93. Gene pool
    Combination of all alleles in a population
  94. Gene frequency
    How often an allele is seen in a gene pool
  95. Allele
    trait variant
  96. Carrier
    Can give trait to offspring but doesn't express it
  97. Chromatid
    Segment of chromosomes in meiosis
  98. Heterozygous
    Has dominant and recessive alleles
  99. Homozygous
    Has either two dominant or two recessive alleles
  100. Pedigrees
  101. Trisomy
    Extra (pair) of chromosomes
  102. Proteins
    Create traits
  103. Chromosomes
    A packed coil of genes
  104. Centromere
    Center of a cell
  105. Diploid
    Containing two sets of chromosomes
  106. Gametes
    Haploid cells
  107. Homologous chromosomes
    Both type of chromosomes
  108. Karyotype
    Genetic makeup
  109. Phenotype
    Physical traits expressed
  110. Sickle cell anemia
    Inherited blood disease with crescent shaped blood cells
  111. Translocation
    Switch of parts of a chromosome
  112. Genes
    Traits/genetic makeup
  113. Crossing over
    Process of translocation
  114. Genotype
    Set of genes in an organism
  115. Haploid
    Cell or organism having half of the number of chromosomes in somatic cells
  116. Population genetics
    Study of genetic influences on the components of cause and effect in the somatic characteristics of populations
  117. E. Coli
    A type of bacteria
  118. Transgenic
    Organism with genes from another organism put into it genome.
  119. b-gal
    A sugar splitting enzyme
  120. Ampicillin
    Penicillin derivative with broad spectrum activity
  121. X-gal
    is used to detect for the bacterium B-galactosidase
  122. pBLU
    Bacterial plasmid containing genes for ampicillin resistance
  123. Competent
    Cells able to take up genetic material
  124. heat shock
    Put in hot water
  125. LB
    Luria-Bertani broth (cell agar)