Geology Unit 3: Minerals and Rocks

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Geology Unit 3: Minerals and Rocks
2013-02-10 17:51:20
minerals rocks geology texas

on unit 3 about minerals and rocks
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  1. Which two elements form the largest  amount of mass in our known universe?
    Hydrogen and helium.
  2. Our sun is composed mostly of one element. Which one?
    Hydrogen (92%)
  3. How are most of the 92 natural elements in our universe created?
    Within galaxies, most natural elements will join with others to form compounds and molecules that we see as molecular clouds (nebula) or space dust.
  4. Should we expect to find many new elements in other solar system and galaxies?
    This formation process is repeated throughout the known universe. thus we should expect to find the same elements, compounds, and minerals everywhere in our universe. 
  5. What are the four most abundant elements in the Earth's crust?
    the four most abundant elements of the Earth's crust (88%) include oxygen (47%), slicon (28%), aluminum (8%) and iron (5%)
  6. How different should minerals be on other planets, when compared to those on Earth?
    the initial rocks and minerals on most planets and other rocky bodies should be similar to those on Earth.
  7. Can man-made compounds be considered minerals? Why?
    A mineral is inorganic and cannot be composed of any decayed plant or animal matter.
  8. Why are oil, gas and coal deposits defined by governments as minerals?
    For tax purposes. Minerals are taxed at a higher rate than rocks.
  9. Is ice made in a refrigerator a mineral? Explain why.
    Yes, a mineral must be solid.
  10. Which single element composes both graphite and diamond?
  11. What structural difference makes a diamond different from graphite? Good exam question
    Their differences are within the crystal structure.
  12. Which mineral is harder than diamonds? What type of paper weights one carat?
    Nothing on Earth is harder than a diamond. A one carat diamond equals in weight to a 2x2 Post-it note.
  13. How is the cleavage of various minerals defined?
    Shape often taken when a mineral is broken; such as cubes of halite
  14. How is hardness defined?
    Resistance to abrasion, often compared to other minerals.
  15. How can using color be a problem in identifying a mineral?
    Because one mineral may have many colors.
  16. Is a ruby a different mineral than a sapphire? Why do they have different names?
    the only difference between rubies and sapphires is that rubies are red and sapphires are generally blue. But they are the same mineral:corundum.
  17. What is the chemical composition or formula for halite? Common exam question.
    Is a mineral that we call "salt" (NaCl-sodium chloride).
  18. What is the crystal structure and cleavage patter for halite?
    Halite has a cubic cleavage (breaks into cubes).
  19. Name two common uses for gypsum.
    It is used as a soil conditioner (especially for black sticky soil), Plaster of Paris, Alabaster carvings and most importantly sheetrock.
  20. What is the hardness and cleavage of the mineral gypsum?
    Gypsum has a hardness of two (2 which can be scratched with your fingernail) and has perfect cleavage (breaks into smooth sheets).
  21. What is the chemical composition of calcite?
    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
  22. Which iron ore mineral is a natural magnet?
  23. Where can sulfur be found along the GOM coast?
    Sulfur is commonly found in the cap rock of salt domes and near steam vents that surround volcanoes. 
  24. Describe the hardness of quartz.
    Quartz is very hard. Quartz can scratch glass. but steel cannot scratch quartz.
  25. What common commodity is made from melted quartz sand?
    Melted quartz sand is used to make glass.
  26. Described how quartz is used with the building construction industry.
    Quartz is CC area includes beach and river sand, and chert (flint or gravel). Sand and chert are among the most important components of concrete used with the building industry.
  27. Which mineral is possibly one of the most common mineral in the known universe?
  28. What is the definition of a rock?
    A naturally occurring aggregate of one or more minerals.
  29. Rocks are formed in three rock systems. Name the three rock systems.
    • 1.) Igneous system
    • 2.) Sedimentary system
    • 3.) Metamorphic system
  30. What does a rock system explain about rocks of time? (thinking question)
    Plate tectonics and hydrologic system are responsible for the recycling of rock material and are the driving forces that can take hundreds of millions of years to completely change a rock.
  31. What type of rock does a clastic sedimentary rock become when it is melted?
    Igneous rock.
  32. Locally how is score commonly used?
    Scoria is used for BBQ pits and decorative rocks.
  33. Describe one unique physical property of pumice.
    Pumice is the only igneous rock that floats on water and is commonly found on Padre Island.
  34. Which minerals generally comprise granite?
    Biotite, Orthoclase (Feldspar), and Quartz.
  35. What is the name of the large natural occurrence of granite (State Park) in Texas?
    The nearest Texas granite mass is the Enchanted Rock, NW of San Antonio.
  36. How does clastic sediment differ from chemical sediment?
    • Clastic or Derital sediments have solid particles derived from pre-existing rocks.
    • Chemical sediments have two different types. 
    • 1.) Biochemical sediments: solid particles created by plants and animals.
    • 2.)Evaporation sediments: solid particles derived from evaporation.
  37. In regards to lithification, how is cementation accomplished?
    It's accomplished by precipitation of minerals within sediments (coating with minerals of calcite, slilica, or iron)
  38. Describe the origin of coal.
    It's a vegetation matter modified by biochemical processes and consolidated into rock
  39. What is shale?
    Basically consolidated, harden mud that can be rich with organic material and this includes the Eagle Ford shale.
  40. Name a South Texas shale that has led to a major oil and gas boom.
    The Eagle Ford shale has led to major oil and gas boom in South Texas.
  41. Name a typical foliated metamorphic rock.
  42. From which sedimentary rock is marble produced?
  43. Which mineral comprises the metamorphic rock marble?
  44. What type of rocks do sedimentary and igneous rocks become with heat and pressure (burial)?