Non Renewable resources

Card Set Information

Author:
anime1003
ID:
199303
Filename:
Non Renewable resources
Updated:
2013-03-03 19:38:04
Tags:
Exam
Folders:

Description:
first section of class
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user anime1003 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Difference between a resource and a reserve
    • Resource is the actual amount in the ground
    • reserve is what is economical to retrieve
  2. 5 trending stages of population growth
    • 1) death rate =birth rate
    • 2) death rate falls
    • 3) birth rate falls
    • 4) population peak
    • 5) destablelization
  3. Crude birth rate
    # births/1000 people
  4. Malthusian Paradox
    a higher standar of living should generate a higher birth rate
  5. population growth is the strongest control on _____
    resource consumption
  6. Change in population per unit time =
    (Number of births per unit time) - (Number of deaths per unit time)
  7. Global average: Crude birth, Crude death
    • 20/1000/yr
    • 8/1000/year
  8. ΔN
    Δt = rN
    • t = time
    • N(t) = instantaneous population
    • r = net growth rate
  9. example of negative feedback
    • competition for food
    • disease
    • war/death/competition
  10. Δ𝑁
    Δ𝑡= 𝑟0 (1 −𝑁/𝐾)𝑁
    • Logistic equation
    • Growth rate
    • ro = ‘non-congested’ growth rate
    • K = ‘Carrying capacity’
  11. ΔN/Δt=[N(K+1)-Nk]/Δt
    logistical growth equation
  12. N(K+1)=Nk+r(Nk)2(Δt)
    carrying capacity equation
  13. antiquity age: resources
    • water
    • food
    • shelter
    • salt
    • Native silver
    • gold
  14. Greco-roman: resources
    • heavy mineral mining
    • Iron
  15. Dark ages: resources
    lack of mineral mining
  16. Renaissance: resources
    Metals, silk, spices, gems
  17. Industrial revolution: resources
    • textile
    • iron
    • canals
    • railways
    • steam power
  18. Industrial revolution: Why britan
    • Only European nation not financially devastated by Napoleonic Wars 
    • Large (intact) merchant fleet 
    • Key Resources (Coal, Iron, Water Power – also Lead, Tin, Copper, Limestone)
  19. Cohort
    age grouping on a population pyramid
  20. Iron revolution
    • Abraham Darby (I,II,III) family 
    • Nearby supply of iron ore, limestone and coal 
    • Coke (from coal) replaced charcoal in smelting process 
    • Bigger (more efficient) blast furnaces
  21. Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen
    • first steam engine, similar to a siphon, limited depth and slow
    • separates piston to drive the pump
  22. Capitalist society:
    Corporations control resources
  23. Socialist society:
    • resources controlled by the state
    • possibly subsidized
  24. Nationalization
    • The process of taking an industry, e.g. a mine or oil rig, into the
    • ‘public’ ownership of a national government
  25. Expropriation
    Nationalization without compensation to previous industry owners
  26. 5 ways to extract energy from work
    • We burn a fuel (chemical reaction)
    • We ‘split’ heavy nuclei (nuclear fission)
    • We use the sun’s radiation directly
    • We use the sun’s energy indirectly (wind
    • turbine)
    • We use gravity (tides)
  27. solar energy radiated from the sun
    90,000 TW (Terawatt=1012 W)
  28. energy flux
    power per unit time
  29. 3 primary fossil fuels
    • Coal
    • Oil
    • Natural gas
  30. 4 parameters for 'cooking' organic matter
    • source material
    • temperature
    • pressure
    • time
  31. hedge
    • A position in one market intended to
    • offset price fluctuations in another
    • market, thereby reducing risk
  32. Future contract: what is it
    • specified delivery date
    • delivery amount
    • delivery location
    • delivery quality
  33. Futures contact: who?
    • Buyer-long
    • Seller-short
  34. what can drive the futures market
    • wether patterns
    • strength of US $
    • global geopolitical unrest
    • broader financial markets
    • speculation/inflation
  35. cash value is often ____ than futures value
    less
  36. Basis
    cash price - futures price
  37. Short
    Seller: Agrees to deliver commodity at set place and time for the price of the contract
  38. Long:
    Buyer: Agrees to pick-up commodity at set place and time for the price of the contract
  39. Speculators:
    a player in the futures market who has no intention of either producing a production or taking a delivery of a physical commodity
  40. Spectators are ____ to an efficient futures market. They provide _____
    Essential, Liquidity
  41. Industrial nations have a _____ demand for natural resources
    High
  42. 6 comercial types of wheat
    • Soft White Winter (low protein: pastries)
    • Soft Red Winter (low protein: cakes, biscuits, muffins)
    • Hard White Winter (medium protein: bread / brewing)
    • Hard Red Winter (high protein: breads)
    • Hard Red Spring (very high protein: breads)
    • Durum (very high protein: pasta)
  43. M king Hubbert
    predicted US peak oil
  44. instantaneous production rate
    • 𝑑𝑄
    • 𝑑𝑡 = 𝛼𝑄 (1 −𝑄/𝑄max)
  45. cumulative production over time (eq.)
    𝑄t =𝑄max/(1 + 𝑒-α(t-t50))
  46. Qmax
    Y=0
  47. Alpha
    X=0
  48. 5 main uses of coal
    • energy generation
    • steel production
    • gasification/liquefaction
    • cement production
    • aluminum production
  49. 1kg= X lbs
    2.2
  50. Reserve base
    • Proved to exist
    • measured
    • extractable
  51. 4 environmental problems with coal
    • Mine drainage (runoff)
    • Acid rain
    • Atmospheric CO2 (carbon dioxide)
    • Underground (uncontrolled) fires
  52. Acid Mine drainage
    • Sulfur present in all coal (0.2 – 7% S)
    • Mining exposes sulfide minerals to air
    • and water producing:Ferrous sulfate,Sulfuric acid, and Harmful to rivers & streams
  53. Coalification
    PEAT ⇒ LIGNITE⇒BITUMINOUS ⇒ANTHRACITE
  54. Higher 'quality coal'
    • Chemical changes with increasing rank
    • Increase in carbon (C), decrease in oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H)
    • Physical changes with increasing rank
    • Identifiable plant remains disappear
  55. Parameters needed to form coal
    • Accumulation of organic matter (OM) in a
    • subsiding environment, i.e. a sedimentary basin
    • A climate supportive of abundant plant growth
    • Protection of OM from decomposition
    • Rapid burial and/or Cool temperatures (temperate climates)
  56. Large coal deposits form in _____
    Ancient river deltas
  57. avulsion
    river deltas changing direction of their lobes
  58. Underground mining
    • Room and Pillar method
    • Longwall method (controlled collapse)
  59. Surface Mining
    • strip mining: removing over burden, bucket wheel excavator
    • Mountain Topping:walking dragline
  60. Cartel
    • Entities that join together to control the production and price of a commodity
    • Supply-side control
  61. Kimberline pipes (diamonds)
    • Weathering and Erosion can free them
    • from the solidified magma pipe
  62. OPEC formation
    • Original members: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Venezuela
    • Sought to return prices to pre-1960 level by controlling production
    • Prevent future price cuts
    • Change profit sharing percentages
  63. Oil Cartel Paradox
    Non-OPEC supplies are being consumed faster than OPEC reserves – ultimately shifting balance of power back to OPEC

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview