Clinical Chemistry Normal Values
Card Set Information
Clinical Chemistry Normal Values
Second most important anion
Important plasma buffer
Originates from diet and bone
: IVs, ketoacidosis, antacids
: Renal failure, over consumption of milk, cellular catabolism (leukemia)
Main intracellular cation.
RBCs have high concentration of K.
: promotes musular excitability.
: Decreases muscular excitability regulation of K performed by renal secretion.
Difference between unmeasured anions and unmeasured anions.
(Na + K) - (Cl+CO
90% extracellular cation. Main contributor to plasma osmolality.
: water loss (sweating, diarrhea, burns, diabetes insipidus)
: aldosterone deficiency, Diabetes mellitus)
Main extracellular anion.
Cl moves with Na or against HCO
Reabsorbed in the renal proximal tubules along with sodium
Second most intracellular cation.
Regulated by PTH
: Diuretics, diabetes, High aldosterone
: Magne. sulfate used to stop labor contractions.
45% critical component of cardiac function.
Released by PTH
: inhibits cardiac function
: Causes tetany
: vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidis
: Hyperparathyroid, open heart surgery
99% associated with bone tissues
Byproduct of ATP synthesis in oxygen poor cells.
Sensitive indicator of oxygen deprivation
: 2 Na + BUN/3 + Glucose/20
50% of NPN
: renal function, diet, protein catabolism
: Glomerular nephritis, renal failure from diabetes
High post renal
: Kidney stones, UTIs, Bladder prostate tumors
Formed at constant rate by muscles. Removed from plasma by glomerular filtration
Evaluate renal function.
: Decreased glomerular filtration
Measured by Jaffee method
High bilirubin and hemolysis falsely decrease results.
measurement of rate at which creatinine is removed from plasma by kidneys.
Creatinine endogenous substance.
Not secreted/reabsorbed by renal tubules
Breakdown of purines (nucleic acid/DNA)
Filtered by glomerulus
Amino acid catabolism.
Liver converts ammonia--urea
: Reye's syndrome, liver disease, severe renal disease
Collected on ice and tested ASAP
High concentration of all proteins.
80% tissue osmotic pressure.
: Poor nutrition, liver and renal disease
Alpha 2 globulin
Binds free hemoglobin alpha chains.
: Inflammatory conditions
*Used for hemolytic transfusion reactions*
Enhances complement activity and phagocytosis (opsonization)
: Infection, gout, cancers, tissue necrosis, autoimmune disease
*2 average collected at 2 week intervals*
Heme protein found in skeletal and cardiac muscle
Reversibly binds with oxygen
: crash injuries, Renal failure
: Elevated 1-3 hrs post
Peaks 5-12 hrs post
Returns to normal 18-30 hrs
Closely associated with cardiac tissue useful to evaluate possible AMIs.
: 3-4 post AMI
10-24 hr post AMI
10-14 days remains high
Hormone heart releases in response to increased heart pressure associated CHF
Biuret method for methodology
Total Protein (24 hour urine)
0-100 mg/24 hours
0.20-0.50 mg/L FEU
Number ratio of albumin to globulin concentration.
: high gamma globulins
Total Protein (CSF)
: Bacterial, Fungal, viral infections, cerebral bleed, MS, traumatic spinal taps
Doesn't measure T3
Reported as % of normal average value or THBR.
: Primary hyperthyroid, steroids
: Primary hyperthyroid, Pregnancy
Total T4 (TT4)
Human Chrorionic Gonadotropin (HCG nonpregnant)
< 3.0 uU/ml
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Total T3 (TT3)
Creatine Phosphokinase(CPK, CK)
Hemolyzed specimens must be recollected.
< 6% of total CK IU/L
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
: skeletal muscle, cardiac, renal, RBCs
: AMI, Liver Disease, Cancers, Hemolytic diseases
At pH 9.0 reaction moves to right
At pH 6.8 reaction moves to left
Asparate Aminotransferase (AST)
: skeletal, cardiac, liver, lung tissue
: Rise 6-8 hours
Peaks @ 24 hours
Normal by 5th day
Alaine Aminotransferase (ALT)
High in liver
: Associated with liver disease
Alkaline phosphatase (ALK, ALK phos)
Optimal pH @ 9-10
Removes phosphates from organic comp.
: bone and liver
Best for diagnose bone and liver disease
Catalyzes breakdown of starch and glycogen to glucose.
: Pancrease, saliva
Excreted in urine.
High in liver tissue.
: Alcoholic cirrhosis, Hepatobiliary disease
Hydrolyze (breaks down) fat
High in pancrease
: Pancreatitis (more specific)
Glycosylated Hemoglobin (A1C)
< 200 mg/dl
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
> 45 mg/dl
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
< 130 mg/dl
% Fe Saturation
TIBC (Total Iron Binding Capacity)
Arterial Blood Gases:
Total Bilirubin (newborn)