World Lit Midterm

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ReneeCK
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199342
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World Lit Midterm
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2013-02-10 11:13:31
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World Literature
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ENGL 2131 World Lit Kwon UNG
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  1. What is World Literature? (Who noted it?
    David Damrosch 
  2. What is World Literature
    • -ability to find ones self in the
    • literature

    -timeless 

    • -written expression that exposes
    • different cultures 
  3. Weitliteratur
    • Goethe coined the term world literature
    • (Weitliteratur in German) 
  4. "Conversations with Eckermann" 
    • the international circulation and reception of literary works in early 19th century
    • and shows a sense of an arising global modernity

    National literature is now a rather unmeaning term; the epoch of world literature is at hand and everyone must strive to hasten its approach 

    • the
    • network of world lit has an economic character 
  5. "a traffic in ideas between peoples, a literary market to which the nations bring
    their intellectual treasures for exchange"
    Frits Strich 
  6. Communist
    Manifesto" (1847) 
    • "National one-sidededness and
    • narrow-mindeddness become more and more impossible, and from the numerous
    • national and local literatures there arises a world lit."

    • -world lit is the quintessential lit of modern times 
    • -Marx and Engles (wrote Communist Manifesto)
  7. "The sum total of all national literatures? A wild idea, unattainable in practice..." 
    Claudio Guillen 
  8. "all literary works that
    circulate beyond their culture of origin, either in translation or in their
    original lg. ...includes any work that has ever reaches beyond its home
    base..." whenever, and wherever, it is actively present within a literary
    system beyond that of its original culture" 
    David Damrosch  (Harvard) 
  9. David Damrosch  (Harvard) 
    • a work of lit can often reach out beyond its own time and place, but conversely
    • it can also provide a privileged mode of access into some of the deepest
    • qualities of its culture of origin 
  10. The rise of world literature in academia (especially in the US) 
    second half of the 20th century
  11. Western European and U.S. masterpieces (before) literature from an increasingly more diverse world, especially incorporating non-Western literature (now, no longer “elite”
    literature only) 
    David Damrosch
  12. Gayatri Spivak 
    • concerned about the study of world literature in translation, which could diminish the importance of the
    • original language and context of the text.

    • Some scholars emphasize the need to pay attention to original language and contexts. 
  13. world literature should ideally inspire readers to study world languages and read literatures in the original languages.
    David Damrosch 
  14. Wu Ch’eng-En, Monkey (Journey to the West) Characters
    1) Hsuan Tsang/Tripitaka

    • -empty center of the group, carried
    • forward by his more active disciples, both willing and unwilling

    • 2) Sun Wu-Kung, Monkey
    • Aware-of-Vacuity

    • -vital, humorous, mischievous,
    • adventurous, arrogant & rebellious (but becomes faithful to his master and
    • committed to the pilgrim)

    3) The Bodhisattva, Kuan-yin

    • -potential Buddha helping suffering
    • humanity
  15. Wu Ch’eng-En, Monkey
    Chinese- Ming dynasty (1368-1644)

    • Based on journey of the Buddhist
    • monk Hsuan Tang (aka Tripitaka) from China to India in search of Buddhist
    • scriptures during the T'ang Dynasty (618-907) 


    -17th century work -published in many chapters which are independent but also have a continuous story told and added to over many centuries

    -things added in episodes 

    Journey of immortality

    Supernatural aspect
  16. Arthur Waley
    Translated Journey to the West and renamed it Monkey
  17. "literary" ("classical") Chinese
    1) "literary/classical" spoken

    2) written story

    • -classical stories: short pieces
    • with emphasis on particular phrasing

    -vernacular stories

    -manner of oral storytelling

    -detailed descriptions

    -lively dialogue

    • -speculation on the motives of the
    • characters
  18. "vernacular" Chinese
    • -fantastic creatures: gods, demons,
    • and bizarre kingdoms

    -descriptive and repetitive

    -hyperbolic

    -phrases indicate a serial form
  19. Fire Sermon 
    • Buddha teaching
    • All things are on fire

    • That which you think are important
    • are not important/all things change

    To achieve enlightenment,  you must detach yourself from the world

    Sensory input things are illusions and are not important 
  20. Emily Dickinson
    1830-1886

    Gothic poetess
  21. Matsuo Basho
    • The Narrow Road to the Deep North 
    • Japanese
    • Haiku
    • Seasonal, paradoxical, centerline twist (snow on the pine tree/chills my body warm by fire/insulating cold)
  22. Anton Chekhov
    • Russia
    • 1860-1904
    • His 
grandfather 
had
 been 
a 
serf 
who
eventually 
saved
 enough 
money 
to
 
    • purchase 
his 
freedom

    Chekhov
 managed 
to
 work 
as 
both 
a 
physician 
and 
a 
writer 
until
 he
 died (“Medicine 
is
 my
 lawful 
wife, 
and
 writing 
is
my 
mistress.”)

    Bought an estate in 1894

    Symbolic for a grandson of a serf to become a landlord

    His plays were radically experimental


    His plays did not typically have a strong political or moral message


    • Worked from 1930's on USSR leaders insisted his plays be produced across the country showing how the lower class could rise
    • In the West, his work was taken to stand for individualism and human dignity


    • His work continues to be difficult to categorize
    • Innovative drama
    • -no melodrama; each charater is just as complex and just as simple as life
    • -stresses ensembles instead of heroes and moods instead of actions
    • -shows attention to detail (relates to his medical training)
    • -concise
  23. Chekhov’s
 The 
Seagull
    Stanislavsky’s 
production hailed as "one of the greatest events in the history of Russian theater and one of the greatest new developments in the history of world drama"
  24. Cherry Orchard (history)
    • 1904
    • Depicts Russia at end of 19th century
    • Tsar Alexander II officially ended serfdom in 1861 diminishing the influence of landowners (and pseudo aristocracy)
    • -the shift in wealth and power brought a sense of impending crisis
    • -Bloody Sunday launched Russian Revolution of 1905
  25. The Cherry Orchard Opposing Interpretations
    • 1) Tragedy of downfall of Russian aristocracy
    • 2) Prophesy of approaching feudal Russia and happier future
  26. The Cherry Orchard Significance
    • Paradoxical blend of comedy and tragedy
    • -social picture firmly set in specific historical time: dissolution of the landed gentry & rise of peasant
    • -Chekhov in his distrust of ideologies and heroics extends his sympathy to all characters
  27. Mrs. Lyuba Ranevsky
    owner of the estate and the cherry orchard around which the story revolves. 
  28. Yermolay Lopakhin 
     A businessman, and the son of peasants on Ranevsky's estate. 
  29. Leonid Gayev 
    • Gayev is Ranevsky's brother. He has several intriguing verbal habits; he frequently describes tricky billiards shots at odd and inappropriate times. He also will launch into overly sentimental and rhetorical
    • speeches before his niece Anya stops him, after which he always mutters "I
    • am silent" at least once. 
  30. Varya  
    Ranevksy's adopted daughter, who is twenty-fouryears old. She is in love with Lopakhin, but she doubts that he will ever propose to her.
  31. Anya
    • Ranevksy's biological daughter, Anya is seventeen years old. She seems to have
    • lived a sheltered life. Anya and Trofimov become so close that Varya fears they
    • may become romantically involved.
  32. Peter Trofimov 
    A student at the local university, he knows Ranevsky fromtutoring her son Grisha before he died
  33. Boris Simeonov-Pischik
     A nobleman, and fellow landowner,who is, like Ranevsky, in financial difficulties. Pischik is characterizedmainly by his boundless optimism—he is always certain he will find the moneysomehow to pay for the mortgages that are due—but also by his continualborrowing money from Ranevsky
  34. Charlotte  
    Anya's governess
  35. Firs
    Ranevsky's eighty-seven-year-old manservant. he frequentlytalks about how life was before the serfs were freed. He is possibly senile,and is constantly mumbling.
  36. Simon Yephikodov 
    Yephikodov is a clerk at the Ranevsky estate. He lovesDunyasha, to whom he has proposed.
  37. Yasha 
    the young manservant who has been traveling with Ranevsky ever since she left for France. He is always complaining about how uncivilized Russia iswhen compared to France. He has a strong taste for acrid-smelling cigars.
  38. Dunyasha
    A maid on the Ranevsky estate. She functions mainly as a foil to Yasha, her innocent naïveté and love for him emphasizing and making clear his cynicism and selfishness. She is also the object of Yephikodov's affections, a status about which she is very confused.
  39. Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter… and Spring
    Was 
first 
released 
in
 South 
Korea 
in
 2003.


    Was 
released 
in 
the 
U.S. 
in 
2004.


    Is
 divided 
into 
five
 sections 
(the 
five
seasons of 
the 
title)

    Was
 a 
clear 
departure
 from 
the 
director’s
previous, 
extremely 
cruel 
films.


    Received 
many 
awards,
 including 
awards
from San
 Sebastian 
International 
Film
Festival.
  40. The Metamorphosis
    • Franz Kafka (1883-1924)
    • Bohemia/Austria-Hungary
    • The Metamorphosis 1915
  41. Frank Kafka
    • 1883-1924
    • Jewish born in Catholic Bohemia (he studied Judaism and Hebrew)

    Son of a German-speaking shop keeper (German was the language imposed by Austro-Hungaria government)

    Drawn to lit when his father pushed him towards success in business

    Resented his father's overbearingness, but felt deprived of his mother's love

    Lived with his parents most of his life

    Worked for a large insurance company from 1908 to 1922 until he retired because of his TB
  42. Kafka works
    Novellas: 

    The Metamorphosis (1915)

    In the Penal Colony (1919)

    Story Collection

    The Country Doctor (1919)

    A Hunger Artist (1924)

    Novels

    The Trial (1925)

    The Castle (1926)

    Amerika (1927)
  43. “My Innocent Uncle.”
    • Korea Ch’ae Man-Sik (1902-1950)
    • Modern histories of Korea and Japan

    Everyday realities of Colonial Korea

    The unreliable narrator

    • Characteristics of Modernist
    • literature

    Irony and satire

    Treatment of women

    Title of the story

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