most common side effect of brimonidine? systemic side effect?
allergic conjunctivitis; dry mouth
"for congenital glaucoma, when do you do goniotomy vs trabeculotomy"
"goniotomy if angle can be clearly seen (clear cornea), if not then trabeculotomy"
what are prodrugs
"latanoprost, travatan, dipivefrin, valacyclovir, famciclovir = become biologically active after being hydrolyzed by corneal esterase"
what is the most common systemic side effect of miotics (pilo)?
most common systemic SE of CAI (dorz)
field of vision last affected by end stage glaucoma
beta blockers good or bad for cholesterol
NTG study found 30% reduction in IOP = reduce VF progression from 35 to 12%
what are criteria for NF1
"2 of the following: 1st degree relative, 6 or more café au late spots, 2 or more neurofibromas or 1 plexiform neurofibroma (eyelid mass), axillary/inguinal/intertriginous freckling, 2 or more lisch nodules, osseous lesion, optic nerve glioma/pilocytic astrocytoma"
what is glaukomflecken and what causes it
anterior subcapsular opacities from lens epitheilial cell necrosis due to ischemia from high IOP
what systemic med do you give angle closure glaucoma with kidney stones and why
methazolamide because it's metabolized by liver
what drug causes heart block
beta blockers : levobunolol > carteolol
what is OHTS
ocular hypertension treatment study
"in ohts, what were risk factors for development of glaucoma in ocular hypertension patients"
"increased age, large vertical or horizontal c:d, thin CCT, african american, male, increased pattern standard deviation, heart disease, IOP"
what are the 3 ice syndromes
"cogan reese, chandler, essential iris atrophy"
what is the common finding for these ice syndromes
"""hammered silver"" or ""beaten metal"" appearance of corneal endothelium"
what is the prominent feature of cogan reese syndrome
presence of iris nodules which are histologically distinct from melanoma
prominent feature of chandler's syndrome
prominent feature of essential iris atrophy
corectropia and iris atrophy
"is ice syndrome uni or bilateral, axenfeld reiger?"
what is schartz syndrome
rise in IOP after rhegmatogenous RD from retinal photoreceptors clogging the TM
what is the chance of cataract after trab?
what are contraindications for nonselective adrenergic agonists like dipivefrin and epinephrine
"CME, eyes without intact post capsule"
what are side effects of adrenergic agonists
"adenochrome deposits, stainging of soft contact lens, angle closure, blepharoconjunctivitis (allergic), HTN, ha, tachycardia"
what happens when you put too much fluorescein with measuring IOP
IOP reading is higher than real IOP
by what factor does the stimulus size in area change in goldman
factor of 4
what illegal drugs increase IOP
below what pupil diameter do you get generalized depression on HVF
what are characteristics of plateau iris
"deep AC centrally, sine wave configuration of iris on compression during gonio, peripheral angle narrowing in setting of patent LPI"
how do you treat plateaue iris
"PI to relieve any pupillary block, then laser iridoplasty to help pull the iris from TM"
how do you diagnose plateaue iris
there has to be a lack of change in angle configuration after LI
what is spaeth notation for angle classification
what is the only beta blocker you can give for asthma and why
betaxolol; only gtt to selectively block beta1 receptors; lungs contain only beta2 receptors
what time period is the greatest risk of high IOP after traumatic hyphema and why?
3-7 days; rebleeds occur in that time period since original clot breaks down
what conditions is laser trabeculoplasty most effective
"pds, pxg, POAG;"
what is an indirect parasympathomimetic drug
what was the important finding of AGIS (advanced glaucoma intervention study)
"treat blacks and whites differently; blacks did better with A-T-T (ALT then trab then 2nd trab) while whites did better with T-A-T (trab, then alt, then 2nd trab)"
what are advantages/disadvantages of fornix based approach to trabs
"technically easier (incision actually made at limbus while limbal incision is made 8-10 mm posterior to the limbus), more wound leaks since incision is at the limbus; lower more diffuse blebs since the subconjunctival scar is anterior to the scleral flap promoting fluid flow posterior to the flap"
"in OHTS, what percent reduction in IOP reduced poag from 9.5 to 4.5%"
who has increased risk of hypotony maculopathy after trab?