Chem II

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Chem II
2013-02-10 14:10:53

Decomposition and Embalming
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  1. the self disintegration of a cell by means of enzymes secreted within the cell itself
  2. auto
  3. lysis
    digestion, dissolution, disintegration
  4. found in the lysosomes of the cells and are released when the body dies and the pH changes from slightly alkaline to acidic
    autolytic enzymes
  5. hydrolysis
    splitting by water
  6. the breakdown of a substance into simpler compounds by the addition of or the taking up of the elements of water
  7. the single most important factor in the initiation of decomposition
  8. the alkaline hydrolysis of fats
  9. when the water used in saponification contains some type of alkaline substance (NaOH), the products are
    glycerol & soap
  10. when the water used in saponification contains some type of alkaline substance (NaOH) and calcium compounds, the products are
    glycerol & adiposere (grave wax)
  11. the decomposition of dead organic matter, specifically proteins, by the action of enzymes secreted by anaerobic bacteria
  12. occurs due to anaerobic bacteria using using the dead organic matter for food
  13. the oxygen obtained during ______________ comes from breaking down organic compounds that contain oxygen
  14. a definite type of rotting process which produces malodorous and poisonous products
  15. the decomposition of dead organic matter by the actions of bacteria under aerobic conditions
  16. the oxygen used in ________ is from free atmospheric oxygen from the air
  17. a relatively clean process that involves little or no bad odors and occurs more gradually than putrefaction
  18. first products of decomposition
    • 1. amino acids
    • 2. urea
    • 3. fatty acids
    • 4. ptomaines
  19. the products of the hydrolysis of proteins
    amino acids
  20. product of the oxydation of protein
  21. products of the hydrolysis of fats
    fatty acids
  22. the anaerobic decomposition products of proteins
  23. they contain nitrogen and therefore are very poisonous
  24. the four most important ptomaines to embalmers are
    • 1. skatole
    • 2. indole
    • 3. cadaverine
    • 4. putrescine
  25. provides an extremely disagreeable odor
    responsible for the odor of feces (2)
    • skatole
    • indole
  26. (1,5-diamono pentane) a member of the amine family
    provides a bad odor
  27. (1,4-diamino butane) a member of the amine family with a bad odor
  28. end products of decomposition (12)
    • 1. nitrogen
    • 2. ammonia
    • 3. ammonium compounds
    • 4. hydrogen
    • 5. carbon dioxide
    • 6. methane
    • 7. mercaptans
    • 8. water
    • 9. hydrogen sulfide
    • 10. hydrogen sulfate (sulfuric acid) H2SO4
    • 11. hydrogen phosphate (phosphoric acid) H2PO3
    • 12. hydrogen phosphide
  29. the two most commonly used are formaldehyde and gluteraldehyde
    aldehyde compounds
  30. those most commonly used are methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol
    alcohol compounds
  31. the two most common members of the group are phenol and cresol
    phenolic compounds
  32. to destroy or inhibit pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body
  33. this process insures the safe-being of all concernend: embalmers, funeral directors, family, friends and the general public
  34. chemicals that have the characteristics of both disinfectants and preservatives
    dual-purpose agent
  35. dual-purpose agents (3)
    • 1. aldehyde compounds
    • 2. alcohol compounds
    • 3. phenolic compounds
  36. functions of preservatives (5)
    • 1. they inactivate the chemical groups of proteins or amino acids
    • 2. they inhibit further decomposition
    • 3. they inactivate enzymes
    • 4. they kill microorganisms
    • 5. they destroy the odors of decomposition and inhibit their reproduction
  37. they do this by neutralizing the unstable chemical ions created by the deamination and decarboxylation of proteins and amino acids in decomposition
  38. the amount of preservative needed to neutralize every separate molecule encountered by a molecule of preservative
    preservative/formaldehyde demand
  39. this level must be reached to embalm the body
    preservative/formaldehyde demand