Veg Production Test 1
Card Set Information
Veg Production Test 1
Vegetable Production Test MSU
Vegetable production, test 1
Examples of cole crops?
cabbage, brusel's sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower
aka crucifers or brassicas
leafy crops, usually eaten after cooked
chenopodiaceae and brassicaceae
used mainly for leaves, eaten raw
asteraceae and apiaceae
in field more than 2 years
liliaceae, asteraceae and polygonaceae
allium or amaryllidaceae
plants have bulbs or corms
onion, garlic, leeks
prominent, fleshy, underground structure
legumes or pulse crops
about 600 genera and 12,000 species
many can fix nitrogen
flowers are small and fruit is a kernel
inflorescences - spikelets
many contain alkaloids such as nicotine
cucurbits - cucurbitaceae family
tendrils, leaves that are often rough to touch
large, fleshy fruits with many seeds
we eat vegetative parts (petioles, roots), bud or inflorenscence
warm season vegetables
edible fruits or seeds
: potatoes, sweet potatoes, new Zealand spinach, malabar spinach
Big suppliers of carotene?
carrots (these also have a lot of vitamin A)
dark leafy greens, sweet potatoes, winter squash
What nutrients do tomatoes provide?
Vitamin A, C & K
A ripe pepper is an excellent source of vitamins a & c. Other benefits?
It has 3 times the vitamin c of most citrus
How do "Butte" and "Ranger Russet" potatoes differ from the average potato?
They have 2 times the vitamin c and 20% higher protein
Why is the selection of soil and field more critical for vegetable production than field crops?
More $ per acre is usually invested in vegetables
Many veggies have short periods of growth or relatively limited root systems
importance of drainage in veggie production?
few veggies tolerate wet soils
good drainage reduces disease problems and allows timely cultural operations
what are some advantages of sandy soils?
well-drained and easy to till
warm up quickly in spring
good for getting crops for early markets
what does it mean for a cool season vegetable to be hardy?
it can withstand freezing temps
seeds can germinate in cool soils
what does it mean for a cool season plant to be half-hardy?
it usually can survive some cold temps
seeds do not germinate in cool soil
what does it mean for a warm season crop to be tender?
it's killed by frost
what does it mean for a warm season crop to be very tender?
not only is it killed by a frost, but cool temperatures, even into the 40s and 50s, can kill it
yellow orange to red
apricots, cantaloupes, carrots
black turtle beans, purple cabbage, eggplant
red-violet, yellow orange
beets, swiss chard, prickly pear cactus fruit
sandy loams advantages?
most of the advantages of sandy soils
retain water and nutrients more readily
not as early to warm in spring as sands, but still used chiefly for early market crops
relatively balanced mix of sand, silt and clay
fairly easy to till, relatively fertile
main season and later season production
clay loams - advantages?
usually good native fertility
retain water and nutrients well
may not require side dressing
disadvantages to clay loams?
warms up late in spring
can crust over
clays are basically unsuited for vegetables. what are their disadvantages?
tend toward poor tilth (ease of tillage and fitness as seedbed)
warms up very slowly in spring
What are the 2 main factors that affect nutrient status and availability of nutrients?
Neutral pH range?
6.0 to 7.0
What do growers apply to raise pH?
what determines how quickly lime reacts?
a good source of lime material in a range of mesh sizes is ground limestone
lowering soil pH?
highly mobile in most soils, most likely to produce growth response, and most likely to be deficient?
Not very mobile
Fixed in Soils with Ca (in acid soils with Al or Fe)
Normally, enough P will be available to the crop during the growing season even though soil has a high P-fixing capacity
not generally considered mobile element in soils but can leach in coarse, sandy soils
clay and loam soils often contain adequate K
Fe, B, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn, Cl, Ni
most are enzyme activators
symptoms of N deficiency?
Stems are thin, erect and hard
Leaves are smaller than normal, pale green or yellow
Lower leaves affected first
Plants grow slowly
symptoms of P deficiency?
Stems are thin and shortened
leaved develop purple coloration (first on undersides)
Plants grow slowly, maturity is delayed
Older leaves develop gray or tan areas near the margins
eventually, a scorch around the entire leaf margin may occur
chlorotic areas may develop throughout leaf
What are drawbacks of excesses in a soil?
can reduce availability of other elements
can be directly toxic
excess salts compete with plant tissues for water, damage or kill roots
salts that accumulate in above-ground parts can also damage tissues
Plants take up elements in inorganic ionic form, regardless of the form of fertilizer applied. Any exceptions?
advantages and disadvantages of organic fertilizers?
less leaching, improved soil
but NPK varies and tends to be low
P comes in P
in fertilizers. Conversion factor?
multiply by 0.44 to get P
K comes in K
O in fertilizers. Conversion factor?
multiply by 0.83 to get K
3 lbs. of 15-30-15 or 10-52-17 in 50 Gal. water, 1 cup per plant, adequate for most transplants
when would you use foliar spray?
for correcting problems that develop
not for applying major elements
applying fertilizer through irrigation water
what happens if you have excess calcium in your water and you're fertigating?
excess Ca combined with some fertilizers can plug irrigation lines or block the soil's ability to take up water
advantages of windbreaks?
reduce wind damage, sand abrasion
can change plant microclimate
: reduces evaporation, increases air temp, humidity and altered CO
how much wheat or rye should you plant for every three or four vegetable rows (if you're using it as a windbreak)?
a couple of rows
T/F Seed costs are often more than 10% of the total cost of producing the crop
False. Often, they're less than 6%
The moral of the story
: cheap seed is never a bargain
rule of thumb for seed storage?
temp + relative humidity is less than 100
vegetables that are primarily asexually propogated?
globe artichoke, garlic, horseradish, rhubarb, sweet potato, white potato
what plants are primarily propagated through the use of their crowns?
what plants are primarily propagated through their tubers?
what plants are primarily propagated through their roots?
strawberry is propagated via
onions are propagated via