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Examples of cole crops?
- cabbage, brusel's sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower
- aka crucifers or brassicas
- leafy crops, usually eaten after cooked
- chenopodiaceae and brassicaceae
- used mainly for leaves, eaten raw
- asteraceae and apiaceae
- in field more than 2 years
- liliaceae, asteraceae and polygonaceae
- allium or amaryllidaceae
- plants have bulbs or corms
- onion, garlic, leeks
- prominent, fleshy, underground structure
legumes or pulse crops
- fabaceae family
- about 600 genera and 12,000 species
- many can fix nitrogen
- poaceae family
- flowers are small and fruit is a kernel
- inflorescences - spikelets
- nightshade family
- many contain alkaloids such as nicotine
cucurbits - cucurbitaceae family
- tendrils, leaves that are often rough to touch
- large, fleshy fruits with many seeds
- we eat vegetative parts (petioles, roots), bud or inflorenscence
- exception: peas
warm season vegetables
- edible fruits or seeds
- exceptions: potatoes, sweet potatoes, new Zealand spinach, malabar spinach
Big suppliers of carotene?
- carrots (these also have a lot of vitamin A)
- dark leafy greens, sweet potatoes, winter squash
What nutrients do tomatoes provide?
A ripe pepper is an excellent source of vitamins a & c. Other benefits?
It has 3 times the vitamin c of most citrus
How do "Butte" and "Ranger Russet" potatoes differ from the average potato?
They have 2 times the vitamin c and 20% higher protein
Why is the selection of soil and field more critical for vegetable production than field crops?
- More $ per acre is usually invested in vegetables
- Many veggies have short periods of growth or relatively limited root systems
importance of drainage in veggie production?
- few veggies tolerate wet soils
- good drainage reduces disease problems and allows timely cultural operations
what are some advantages of sandy soils?
- well-drained and easy to till
- warm up quickly in spring
- good for getting crops for early markets
what does it mean for a cool season vegetable to be hardy?
- it can withstand freezing temps
- seeds can germinate in cool soils
what does it mean for a cool season plant to be half-hardy?
- it usually can survive some cold temps
- seeds do not germinate in cool soil
what does it mean for a warm season crop to be tender?
- it's killed by frost
- ex: corn
what does it mean for a warm season crop to be very tender?
not only is it killed by a frost, but cool temperatures, even into the 40s and 50s, can kill it
- yellow orange to red
- apricots, cantaloupes, carrots
- blue, purple-burgundy
- black turtle beans, purple cabbage, eggplant
- red-violet, yellow orange
- beets, swiss chard, prickly pear cactus fruit
sandy loams advantages?
- most of the advantages of sandy soils
- retain water and nutrients more readily
- not as early to warm in spring as sands, but still used chiefly for early market crops
- relatively balanced mix of sand, silt and clay
- fairly easy to till, relatively fertile
- main season and later season production
clay loams - advantages?
- usually good native fertility
- retain water and nutrients well
- may not require side dressing
disadvantages to clay loams?
- poor drainage
- warms up late in spring
- can crust over
clays are basically unsuited for vegetables. what are their disadvantages?
- poor drainage
- tend toward poor tilth (ease of tillage and fitness as seedbed)
- warms up very slowly in spring
What are the 2 main factors that affect nutrient status and availability of nutrients?
Neutral pH range?
6.0 to 7.0
What do growers apply to raise pH?
what determines how quickly lime reacts?
- mesh size
- a good source of lime material in a range of mesh sizes is ground limestone
highly mobile in most soils, most likely to produce growth response, and most likely to be deficient?
- Not very mobile
- Fixed in Soils with Ca (in acid soils with Al or Fe)
- Normally, enough P will be available to the crop during the growing season even though soil has a high P-fixing capacity
- not generally considered mobile element in soils but can leach in coarse, sandy soils
- clay and loam soils often contain adequate K
- Fe, B, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn, Cl, Ni
- most are enzyme activators
symptoms of N deficiency?
- Stems are thin, erect and hard
- Leaves are smaller than normal, pale green or yellow
- Lower leaves affected first
- Plants grow slowly
symptoms of P deficiency?
- Stems are thin and shortened
- leaved develop purple coloration (first on undersides)
- Plants grow slowly, maturity is delayed
- Older leaves develop gray or tan areas near the margins
- eventually, a scorch around the entire leaf margin may occur
- chlorotic areas may develop throughout leaf
What are drawbacks of excesses in a soil?
- can reduce availability of other elements
- can be directly toxic
- excess salts compete with plant tissues for water, damage or kill roots
- salts that accumulate in above-ground parts can also damage tissues
Plants take up elements in inorganic ionic form, regardless of the form of fertilizer applied. Any exceptions?
advantages and disadvantages of organic fertilizers?
- less leaching, improved soil
- but NPK varies and tends to be low
P comes in P2O5 in fertilizers. Conversion factor?
multiply by 0.44 to get P
K comes in K2O in fertilizers. Conversion factor?
multiply by 0.83 to get K
3 lbs. of 15-30-15 or 10-52-17 in 50 Gal. water, 1 cup per plant, adequate for most transplants
when would you use foliar spray?
- for correcting problems that develop
- not for applying major elements
applying fertilizer through irrigation water
what happens if you have excess calcium in your water and you're fertigating?
excess Ca combined with some fertilizers can plug irrigation lines or block the soil's ability to take up water
advantages of windbreaks?
- reduce wind damage, sand abrasion
- can change plant microclimate: reduces evaporation, increases air temp, humidity and altered CO2 levels
how much wheat or rye should you plant for every three or four vegetable rows (if you're using it as a windbreak)?
a couple of rows
T/F Seed costs are often more than 10% of the total cost of producing the crop
- False. Often, they're less than 6%
- The moral of the story: cheap seed is never a bargain
rule of thumb for seed storage?
temp + relative humidity is less than 100
vegetables that are primarily asexually propogated?
globe artichoke, garlic, horseradish, rhubarb, sweet potato, white potato
what plants are primarily propagated through the use of their crowns?
what plants are primarily propagated through their tubers?
what plants are primarily propagated through their roots?
- sweet potato
- witloof chicory
strawberry is propagated via
onions are propagated via