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originate from the mother or fetus and impact the development or function of the mother or fetus. genetic, nutritional, medical and obstetric issues
maternal behaviors or lifestyles that have a negative effect on the mother or fetus. smoking, caffeine, etc.
variables that pertain to the woman and her family and place the mother and the fetus at risk. prenatal care, age, parity, marital status, income, ethnicity.
designed to identify those who are not affected by a disease or abnormality.
help identify a particular disease or provide info which aids in making of a diagnosis.
high frequency sound waves to produce an image of an organ or tissue
umbilical artery doppler flow
assess the rate and volume of blood flow through placenta and umbilical cord vessels using ultrasound.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
diagnostic radiologic evaluation of tissue and organs from multiple planes. used to visualize maternal or fetal structures for more detailed imaging when tests indicate possible abnormalities, ex. brain
biological examination and chemical determination
diagnostic procedure in which a needle is inserted through the maternal abdominal wall into the uterine cavity to obtain amniotic fluid
-assess fetal lung maturity, hemolytic disease, intrauterine infection
-administer RH immune globulin to Rh negative women post procedure to prevent antibody formation in RH negative woman
chorionic villus sampling
aspiration of a small amount of placental tissue for chormosomal, metabolic, or dna testing. used for chromosomial analysis between 10 and 12 weeks gestation to detect fetal abnormalities caused by genetic disorders.
- -catheter is inserted transvaginally through the cervix
- -can be performed earlier than an amniocentesis
-administer Rhogam to RH negative women
percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS) or cordocentesis
- removal of fetal blood from the umbilical cord for fetal blood sampling.
- -the blood is used to test for metabolic hematological disorders, fetal infection, fetal karyotyping. also for fetal rbc and platelet transfusions
triple marker screening
combines all 3 chemical markers-afp, hcg, and estriol levels
-maternal blood drawn at 15-16 weeks of gestation
daily fetal movement count (kick count)
maternal assessment of fetal movement by counting fetal movements in a period of time.
- -2 hrs=10 kicks
- -1 hr=4 kicks
non stress tests
- electronic fetal monitoring to assess fetal well being
- -records accelerations of FHR in relation to fetal activity
uses auditory stimulations to assess fetal well being with EFM when NST is nonreactive
contraction stress test
- assess fetal well being with EFM in women with nonreactive NST at term gestation
- -purpose is to identify a fetus that is at risk for compromised through observation of the fetal response to intermittent reduction to utero placental blood flow associated with stimulated uterine contractions
amniotic fluid index
measures the volume of amniotic fluid with ultrasound to assess fetal well being and placental function
amniotic fluid index < or equal to 5 cm
amniotic fluid index above 24 cm
biophysical profile (bpp/bpa)
ultrasound assessment of fetal status along with NST
combines NST with AFI as an indicator of short term fetal well being and AFI as an indicator of long term placental function to evaluate fetal well being