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  1. what is the goal for respiration
    oxygenation of blood and elimination of carbon dioxide, in with the good, out with the bad
  2. what sort of breathing are we capable of
    quiet respiration, forced inspiration, forced expiration
  3. what sort of forces do we use for expiration
    • torque
    • elasticity
    • gravity
  4. how do we use muscle force to reduce the size of the thorax
    • by compressing the abdomen
    • pulling the rib cage down which leads to air being forced out of the lungs beyond what is expired in passive epiration
  5. what must be taken into consideration when breathing
    • 1. RATE OF FLOW IN RESPIRATION-in and out of the lungs
    • 2. VOLUMES-measured in liters, milliliters, cc, amount of air each compartment can hold
    • 3. LUNG CAPACITIES-capacities refer to combination of volumes that show physiological limits
  6. what is the normal respiration rate
    • about 12-18 cycles of resp per minute
    • NEWBORN-40-70 cycles per minute, faster rates to meet metabolic needs
    • 5 YEARS-25 BPM
    • 15 YEARS-20 BPM
  7. what happens in one cycle of respiration
    • one inspiration/inhalation and one expiration, exhalation
    • 1/2 liter of air with each cycle
    • we move 6-8 liters of air every minute
    • volumes increase as activity increases
  8. minute volume
    the volume of air involved in one minute of respiration
  9. quiet tidal respiration
    quiet breathing
  10. tidal volume
    • TV
    • the volume of air exchanged (oxygen, carbon dioxide) in one cycle of resp
    • tidal volume varies as a function of:
    •      physical exertion
    •      body size
    •      age
  11. inspiratory reserve volume
    • IRV
    • the volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration
    •      quietly breath in and out (tv)
    •      stop at the end of inspiration-peak of tidal inspiration
    •      THEN breathe in as deeply as you can
    •      the amount you inhaled after you stopped in the IRV
    •      it is the volume of air in reserve for use beyond tidal volume
    •      2.475 liters
  12. expiratory reserve volume
    • ERV
    • the volume of air that can be expired following passive, tidal expiration. aka RESTING LUNG VOLUME (present after passive exhale)
    •      quietly breathe
    •      stop at end of one natural/relaxed exhale (just relax)
    •      exhale forcefully-want the max
    •      it is the amount of air you exhale after tidal exhalation
    •      1 liter
  13. residual volume
    • RV not present in newborns
    • the volume remaining in the lungs after max exhalation
    •      about 1.1 liters
    •      you cannot eliminate this no matter how hard you try
    •      it is used just can't eliminate it
  14. dead air
    • the volume of air within the conducting passageways that cannot be involved in gas exchange (included as a component of residual volume)
    •      150 cc
  15. capacities
    volumes may be combined to characterize physiological needs
  16. vital capacity
    • VC
    • represents the volume of air that is involved in a max resp cycle
  17. what volume represents the capacity available for speech
    • volume of air that can be inhaled following a max exhalation
    •      combo of IRV+ERV+TV=VC
    •      the total volume of air that can be inspired after a max expiration
  18. functional residual capacity
    • FRC
    • the volume of air remaining in the body after a passive exhalation
    •      FRC= ERV+RV
    •      what is present after passive expiration
  19. total lung capacity
    • TLC
    • the volume of air that is involved in a max respiratory cycle 
    •      TLC=TV+IRV+ERV+RV

    • different from VC which is volume of air that is involved in a max resp cycle
    • tlc includes residual volume
  20. inspiratory capacity
    • IC
    • IC=TV+IRV
    • the max inspiratory volume that is possible after tidal expiration
Card Set:
2013-02-10 19:24:23

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