Week 5 Vocabulary

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Week 5 Vocabulary
2013-02-10 16:36:36
Nervous system

Nervous system
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  1. Nervous system
    • Control center and communication network of the human body
    • -Directs functions
    • -Interperets stimuli
    • -Determines reactions to chance
  2. Homeostasis
    • Process of keeping the bodies internal environment within critical limits.
    • -In the short term, homeostasis controlled by the nervous system.
  3. Central Nervous System
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  4. Peripheral Nervous System
    Everything else that is not the Central nervous system.
  5. Afferent Peripheral system
    sensory neurons - input to brain.
  6. Neuron
    Nerve cell, made up of 3 parts
  7. Cell Body
    Mass of the cell, with nucleus and supports machinery
  8. Dendrites
    Receptive areas, i.e. inputs
  9. Axon
    Extension of cell body i.e. outputs
  10. Schwann Cells
    Seperate cells around the axon
  11. Receptor
    Detects environmental stimuli
  12. Sensory
    Recieves impulses from the receptors
  13. Internuncial
    Transmit impulse for interpretation and processing
  14. Motor
    Reaction to stimulus
  15. Nerve impulses
    Transmitted along nerves much the same way that data is transmitted via ethernet cable.
  16. Resting Potential
    Negative inside, positive outside
  17. Depolarization
    Na+ rush into cell
  18. Repolarization
    K+ rush to restore balance
  19. Synapse
    • Junction between an axon terminal branches close to nearest dendrites
    • -impulse reaches axon terminals
  20. Neurotransmitter
    • Acetycholine most common
    • -Epinephrine
    • -Seratonin
    • -Dopamine
    • -Endorphines
  21. White matter
    • Groups of myelinated axons
    • -Forms nerve tracts in CNS
  22. Gray Matter
    • Nerve cell bodies and dendrites
    • -immyelinated axon bundles
    • -Cortex: gray matter on surface of brain
  23. The Brain is protected by
    • Cranial bones - meninges
    • -cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  24. Brainstem
    Controls breathing, heart rate and reactions to auditory and visual stimuli
  25. Diencephalon
    Controls Homeostasis
  26. Cerebrum
    Controls intellectual processes and emotions
  27. Cerebellum
    maintains body posture and balance
  28. Medulla oblongata
    • Has ascending and descending tracts, connects spinal cord and brain
    • -some tracts cross over in medulla
  29. Pons Varolii
    • Pons: Connects spinal cord with brain, connects each part of the brain with each other
    • -Helps control breathing
  30. Optic Tracts
    Nerves from the eyeballs
  31. Thalamus
    • Relay station for sensory impulses
    • -interpretation center for pain, temp, and touch
  32. Epithalamus
    Contain Pineal Gland
  33. Hypothalamus
    • Home of homeostasis: Controls and intigrates autonomic nervous system
    • -recieves sensory impulses from organs
    • -controls petuitary gland
    • -very little conscious control
  34. Cerebral cortex
    Gray matter surface
  35. Longitudinal fissure
    Seperates two hemispheres
  36. Gyri
    Folds singular to gyrus
  37. Sulci
    Grooves (singular to sulcus)
  38. Corpus Callosum
    Bridge connecting 2 hemispheres
  39. Motor areas
    Control muscular movement
  40. Sensory area
    interprets sensory impulses
  41. association areas
    Process emotions and intellects
  42. frontal lobe
    muscle movement, moods, agression, shell
  43. parietal lobe
    touch, pain, balance, taste, temp
  44. temporal lobe
  45. Occipital lobe
  46. Cerebellum
    • Butterfly shaped, below cerebrum
    • -2 partially seperated hemispheres
    • -Posture, balance
    • -Fine muscle movements
  47. Meninges
    Protector of spinal cord, 3 layers
  48. Dura mater
    "tough mother"
  49. arachnoid
    "Cobweb" Fiberous
  50. Pia mater
    • "Tender mother" 
    • -Contains spinal fluid
  51. Spinal nerves
    • commit at root
    • Dorsal: sensory
  52. mechanoreceptors
    Pressure, vibration, texture
  53. thermoreceptors
    heat, cold
  54. pain receptors
    mechanical, thermal, chemical
  55. proprioceptors
    muscle length position
  56. taste buds
    • On tongue, palate and pharynx
    • -Depends on chemical dissolved in saliva
    • -Taste influenced by olfactory senses
  57. tastes
    salty, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami
  58. Sclera
    White outer wall of the eye
  59. Cornea
    transpartent front of the eye
  60. Iris
    Colored part of the eye, which contracts and expands to limit light
  61. Pupil
    Hole in the center of the iris
  62. Anterior chamber
    the space between the cornea and the lens, filled with aqueois humor (fluid)
  63. Rods
    120 million, only percieves shades of grey
  64. cones
    6-7 million - color perception, less sensetive
  65. Posterior chamber
    The big space in side the eye, behind the lens, filled with the vitrious fluid.
  66. Lens
    Clear tissue that focuses light on the retina
  67. Retina
    Light sensitive lining of the eyeball, containing rods and cones
  68. Fovea centralis
    Pit in the center of the back of the eyeball, where the majority of the receptors are located
  69. Optic Nerve
    The nerve that carries optic info to the Brain
  70. Optic disk
    The "Blind Spot" where the optic nerve exits the eye with no receptors
  71. Photoreceptors
    Light sensors
  72. Eyebrow/Eyelashes
    Helps to protect the eye from outside debris
  73. Auricle
    External visible, flexible part, cartilidge
  74. Pinna
    Another name for auricle
  75. External auditory meatus
    Linked with hair and ceruminus glands
  76. Tympanic membrane
    Vibrates in response to sound, ear drum
  77. Helix
    Outer protruding rim
  78. Lobule
    Ear Lobe
  79. Auditory Ossicles
    Tiny bones in the inner ear, malleus, incus, and stapes
  80. Oval Window
    The stepes vibrates the oval window to set up vibrations inside the cochlea, and round window is the pressure relief
  81. Eustachian tube
    Equalizes pressure in the middle ear
  82. Cochlea
    hearing and equilibrium
  83. Semicircular canals