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_______ is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
______ is “a state of human existence in which a person's basic needs are adequately met and satisfied”.
In order to be _______ an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the ___________”.
- physically, mentally and socially well
_______ is the sum total of the elements, factors and conditions in the surroundings which may have an impact on the ______, ______ or ________ of an organism or group of organisms.
- development, action or survival
The environment is as opposed to ________.
A ______ is anything in the environment that can hurt you or make you sick.
“______ is only possible where resources are available to meet human needs and where the living and working ________ is protected from life-threatening and health- threatening pollutants, pathogens and physical hazards”.
_______ is the study of how the ___________ affects ______
Environmental health, environment, health
During the epidemiological transition, there is a change in the _____ __ _____________ ________ to which people are exposed.
types of environmental hazards to which
Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality
Years Lost due to Disability which considers any associated morbidity
Agent factors are dependent on host factors which are
Infectivity, pathogenicity and virulence.
what is exposure?
Exposure is the total amount of a hazard that comes in direct contact with your body.
what is dose?
Dose is the amount of chemical that actually enters body
dose can depend on...
duration of exposure, frequency of exposure and body size.
what is dosage?
Dosage is the amount of chemical per unit of body weight
Factors Affecting Dermal Absorption
concentration of toxicant, length of exposure, lipid solubility, skin location, condition of the skin, presence of organic solvents
Factors affecting respiratory absorption
concentration of substance in the air, length of exposure, chemical properties, solubility of the substance in blood, size of toxic particle, respiratory tract condition, respiration rate
Factors affecting digestive tract absorption
concentration gradient, size and lipid solubility of toxicant, surface area of GI mucosa, villi and microvilli, residency time in various segments of tract, enzymes present in stomach and intestines, pH of the GI tract, intestinal flora
Metabolism of toxicants
is the process by which a toxicant is converted to a less toxic form
adverse health effect
An adverse health effect is defined as the causation, promotion, facilitation and/or exacerbation of a structural and/or functional abnormality.
Within the health-disease spectrum there are four basic categories of adverse effects on health:
- MORBILITY - SUBCLINICAL DISEASE
- HYPEINOPENIA - DEPLETION OF CELL, TISSUE AND ORGAN RESERVES
Toxicity develops if ...
the toxicant exhausts or impairs the protective mechanisms and/or overrides the adaptability of biological systems.
Threshold dose is the dose at which...
toxicity first appears.
Ceiling effect refers to...
the lowest dose at which all organisms respond.
is the highest data point at which there was not an observed toxic or adverse effect.
is the lowest data point at which there was an observed toxic or adverse effect.
LD50 (Lethal Dose 50%)...
dose at which 50% are expected to die
is the measurement of specific substances in the human body, usually through the analysis of blood, urine and breast milk and tissue samples.
Four responsibilities for a public health system
- Health Emergencies
- Infectious Disease Control and Prevention
- Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention
- Health Promotion
Factors affecting air pollution
- Air Buoyancy
- dispersion (wind)
- dispersion (deposition- wet, dry)
Why is IAP a health concern?
- The lack of indoor air circulation allows pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise.
- People have greatest exposure times to indoor pollutants.
Five ways water is associated with human disease