neuro lab

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  1. What level is the abducens nucleus (CN VI)?
  2. What level is the trochlear nucleus (CN IV)?
    (caudal) midbrain
  3. What level is the oculomotor nucleus (CN III)?
    (rostral) midbrain
  4. What are the four tracts that originate in the brainstem and descend to the spinal cord to influence movement?
    • tectospinal
    • rubrospinal
    • reticulospinal
    • vestibulospinal
  5. What types of input does the superior colliculus receive?
    • SNc
    • somatosensory
    • auditory
    • retina
    • visual cortex
  6. What is the function of the tectospinal tract?
    • not well understood
    • controlling movement orientation of head
    • influence interneurons in cervical spinal cord associated with head and shoulder postural reflex, esp. in association with visual stimuli
  7. Where does the tectospinal tract originate, where does it cross the midline, and where does it synapse?
    • originate: superior colliculus (tectum)
    • crosses midline: (at origin) dorsal tegmental decussation (caudal midbrain)
    • (pons: pontine tegmentum, near midline)
    • (incorporates into medial longitudinal fasciculus)
    • (spinal cord: anterior funiculus)
    • synapse: (contralateral) anterior spinal grey (horn) (cervical cord only)
  8. Where does the rubrospinal tract originate, where does it cross the midline, and where does it synapse?
    • originate: red nucleus
    • crosses midline: (at origin) ventral tegmental decussation (midbrain)
    • (pons: central tegmental tract)
    • (rostal medulla: dorsal to inferior olive nucleus; collaterals: facial nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus)
    • (spinal cord: lateral funiculus)
    • synapse: (contralateral) anterior spinal grey (horn)
    • (--> proximal flexors of upper extremities)
  9. What are the ultimate influences of the reticulospinal tracts?
    They have a complex and widespread influence on voluntary and reflex movements, on muscle tone, and on the central transmission of sensory inputs.
  10. Which tracts run through the anterior funiculus?
    • reticulospinal
    • tectospinal
    • vestibulospinal
  11. Where does the (pontine and medullary) reticulospinal tract originate, where does it cross the midline, and where does it synapse?
    • originate: reticular formation (pons: rostral and caudal nuclei; medulla: both sides)
    • crosses midline: rostral medulla (medullary only); some do not (pontine and medullary)(i.e. bilateral representation fo medullary nuclei)
    • (lateral to pontine reticulospinal tract)
    • (spinal cord: anterior funiculus)
    • synapse: (ipsilateral & contralateral) anterior spinal grey (horn)
    • (--> extensors of paravertebral and proximal limb)
  12. What are the inputs into the vestibular nuclei?
    • vestibular part of CN VIII
    • cerebellum (fastigial nucleus)
  13. Where does the vestibulospinal tract originate, where does it cross the midline, and where does it synapse?
    • originate: vestibular nuclei (descending: lateral, medial)
    • crosses midline: brainstem (medial); some does not (lateral & medial) (i.e. bilateral representation of medial nuclei)
    • (spinal cord: anterior funiculus)
    • synapse: (ipsilateral & contralateral) anterior spinal grey (horn) (medial only goes to cervical; lateral extends to lumbar)
    • (--> extensors of paravertebral and proximal limb)
  14. From where does the red nucleus receive input?
    • cerebellum
    • cerebral cortex
  15. At what level is the medial geniculate nucleus seen?
    (rostral) midbrain
  16. At what level are descending fibers seen?
  17. At what level is the trigeminal nucleus (CN V)?
  18. Where is the superior olive nucleus?
    • level of pons
    • lateral to central tegmental tract
    • inferior to trigeminal nucleus
  19. In which cross-section do you see the middle cerebellar peduncle?
    caudal pons
  20. In which cross-section do you see the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
    rostral medulla
  21. At what level is the solitary tract?
    pons; rostral medulla
  22. Where is the spinothalamic tract seen?
    • at the level of the caudal pons
    • in between the medial and lateral lemniscus
  23. Which tracts run through the lateral funiculus?
    • rubrospinal
    • corticospinal
    • hypothalamo-spinal
  24. What types of neurons for which muscle groups does the rubrospinal tract utlimately influence?
    interneurons for the control of tone in flexor muscles
  25. What are some of the nuclei and connections contained within the reticular formation?
    • nuclei:
    • cerebral cortex input
    • rostral and caudal nuclei for pontine reticulospinal tract

    • connections:
    • rostral parts: consciousness
    • reflex connections (CV, resp, other ANS fxns)
    • corticoreticular fibers
    • pontine reticulospinal tract
  26. Which vestibular nuclei give rise to descending tracts?
    lateral and medial vestibular nuclei
  27. Which tracts run through the medial lemniscus?
    • reticulospinal
    • vestibulospinal
  28. Which tracts run through the medial longitudinal fasciculus?
    • (medial) vestibulospinal (CN VIII)
    • tectospinal
    • cranial nerve nuclei: CN III, IV, VI
  29. What are the 3 types of fiber bundles found in the brain and what are their respective functions?
    • association: interconnect cortical regions within one hemisphere
    • commissural: interconnect homotypical points in the left and right cortices
    • projection: project from cortex to brainstem and spinal cord
  30. What are the 3 types of fibers bundles in the brain and what are examples of each?
    • association: superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, superior occipitofrontal fasciculus, cingulum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus
    • commissural: corpus callosum, anterior commissure, posterior commissure
    • projection: external capsule, internal capsule, extreme capsule, thalamic radiations, optic radiation
    • (fibers of cortical origin = pyramidal cell axons)
  31. What structures do the anterior and posterior commissures connect?
    • anterior commissure: olfactory stria; rostral/antrior cortical regions of temporal lobe
    • posterior commissure: pretectum
  32. What types of fibers make up the external and internal capsules? What are their connections?
    • projection fibers
    • external capsule: cortical projection fibers to putamen and globus pallidus (i.e. lentiform nucleus)
    • internal capsule: projection fibers interconnecting cortex with subcortical structures (e.g. striatum) ; continuous with corona radiata and crus cerebri
  33. What makes up the extreme capsule?
    • extreme capsule: association fibers between claustrum and insula
    • (i.e. interconnects the insular cortex and nearby temporal and frontal opercular cortices)
  34. With what structure is the corona radiata continuous with?
    internal capsule --> crus cerebri
  35. Where do the fibers of the internal capsule terminate?
    • thalamus
    • brainstem
    • spinal cord
    • basal ganglia
  36. Name the structures of the visual pathway in order.
    • retinal input cells
    • optic nerve
    • optic chiasm
    • optic tract
    • lateral geniculate nucleus (thalamus)
    • optic radiations
    • primary visual cortex (occipital lobe)
    • reciprocal connections from cortex to thalamus
  37. What are the parts of the internal casule?
    • projection fibers: most corticofugal (leaving cortex) and corticopetal (entering cortex) fibers
    • five parts:
    • anterior limb (between caudate and lentiform nucleus)
    • genu (just lateral to interventricular foramen)
    • posterior limb (between thalamus, substantia nigra and lentiform nucleus)
    • sublenticular (inferior)
    • retrolenticular (extends posterior to lentiform nuclei)
  38. What are the structures connected by each of the parts of the internal capsule?
    • anterior limb: anterior & dorsomedial nuclei of thalamus <--> frontal lobe cortex
    • genu: VA & VL nuclei of thalamus <--> motor & premotor cortex
    • posterior limb: VA & VL nuclei of thalamus <--> motor and premotor cortex
    • posterior limb: VP nucleus of thalamus <--> somatosensory cortex, and descending fibers of the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts
    • sublenticular: auditory radiation; part of the optic radiation (contralateral upper visual quadrant)
    • retrolenticular: optic radiation (LGN <--> occipital lobe cortex)
    • (corticopontine fibers travel through all parts of the internal capsule)
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neuro lab
2010-05-20 06:18:03
neuro lab

neuro lab
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