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mesoderm cells unite to form what?
42-44 pairs of somites
4th week somites give rise to what?
- sclerotomes (which migrate to each side of notochord to form vertebral bodies)
(there's more detail on this, but I think it's too minute to memorize)
which layer is affected if you have congenital scoliosis/
2 causes of congenital scoliosis (what's going on in the vertebrae)
- vertebral formation failure: hemivertebrae or wedged vertebrae
- vertebral segmentation failure: the vert don't seperate properly --> a bar w no growth plate or disk btwn vertebrate - it's a failure of resegmentation of sclerotomes
lat, ant, post vertebral deformities lead to what?
- lat --> scoliosis
- ant --> kyphosis
- post -->. lordosis
- twisted neck w head tipped to one side
- congenital vertebral issues can look this way if the defect is at the cervical or cervicothoracic region
2 varieties of vertebral formation defects
- wedged vertebrae
some non-obvious signs of congenital scoliosis
- patch of hair on back
- midline skin hemangioma
- congenital heart defects
- kidney defects
flattening of skull bones on one side
congenital scoliosis may co-exist w a syndrome such as VACTERL which stands for what?
- V: vertebral abnormalities
- A: anal atresia: anus doesn't open to outside of body
- C: cardiac defects
- T: tracheal anomalies (ex; tracheoesophageal fistula)
- E: esophageal atresia; esophagus doesn't connect to stomach
- R: renal
- L: limb abnormalities (absent or displaced thumbs, polydactyly, syndactyly, a missing bone in arms or legs)
- (so if a kid has scoliosis, keep an eye out for this stuff)
congenital heart defects are in 30% of congenital scoliosis pts. name 3 varieties of this
- atrial or ventral septal defects
- patent ductus arteriousus
- tetrology of fallot
(can also have chest wall deformities, like multiple rib fusions)
organogenetic period is when?
- 4-8 weeks
- by the end of this all the main organ systems have begun to develop
- any agent causing a birth defect
- drugs, chemicals, alcohol,anticonvulsants, infections, env factors...
critical periods are when cellural differentiation and morphogenisis are at their peaks
fetal alcohol syndrom
- 10-20% of all cases of MR
- a bunch of other sad symptoms
- including, of course, hypotonia
some symptoms of hypotonia
- poor postural endurance
- recurvatum at knees
- hyper ext in elbows
- loose in joints
- poor endurance
- problems w gross motor skills
when do fetuses get smell, taste, hearing, blink reflex?
- smell: 28 weeks
- taste: 13 weeks
- hearing: 24 weeks
- blink as a startle response to loud noise: 28 weeks
timeline for eye dev
- 23-24 weeks - structures and pathways are formed but eyelids are fused
- 24-28 weeks - eyelids open
- 34 weeks - pupillary reflex (shine a bright light and the eyes close)
there's so much more detail in this lecture -- I'm just reading it for now, holding off on carding til she gives info about the test