Exam 2 Terminology - PAP 580

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Exam 2 Terminology - PAP 580
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2014-02-10 00:44:46
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Physical Assessment
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Head & Neck, ENT, Eyes Exam 2
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  1. accommodation
    increased convexity of the lenses caused by contraction of the ciliary muscles, this change in shape of the lenses brings near objects into focus but is not visible to the examiner
  2. Acoustic neuroma
    intracranial tumor that arises from the Schwann cell sheath that involves either the vestibular or cochlear nerve
  3. adenoids
    common name for the pharyngeal tonsils, which are lymph masses in the wall of the air passageway (pharynx) just behind the nose
  4. anisocoria
    difference in pupillary size of 0.04 mm or greater
  5. apnea
    cessation of breathing
  6. aqueous humor
    the clear, watery fluid circulating in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It is produced by the ciliary body and is reabsorbed into the venous system primarily at the iridocorneal angle by means of the canal of Schlemm
  7. Argyll-Robertson pupil
    pupil that reacts to accommodation but not to light, a finding typical of 3º syphilis
  8. astigmatism
    visual defect in which the unequal curvature of one or more refractive surfaces of the eye, usually the cornea, prevents light rays from focusing clearly at one point on the retina, resulting in blurred vision
  9. auricles
    external structure of the ear
  10. A-V nicking
    vascular abnormality in the retina of the eye, visible on ophthalmologic examination, in which a vein is compressed by an arteriovenous crossing. The vein appears "nicked" as a result of constriction or spasm. It is a sign of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, or other vascular conditions
  11. boggy mucosa
    pale and wet mucosa that suggests chronic allergy
  12. bruit
    an abnormal blowing or swishing sound or murmur heard while auscultating the thyroid, and resulting from blood flowing through a narrow or partially occluded artery. Bruits are usually of low frequency and are heard best with the bell of a stethoscope
  13. bulbar
    bulbar conjunctiva covers most of the anterior eyeball
  14. bullae
    1.0 cm or larger lesion, filled with serous fluid (insect bite)
  15. caries
    a destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel and dentin, and cavitation of the tooth
  16. anterior chamber
    The part of the anterior cavity of the eye in front of the iris. It contains the aqueous humor.
  17. cerumen
    ear wax - can cause conductive hearing loss
  18. ciliary injection
    peripheral hyperemia of the anterior ciliary vessels which produces a deep red or rose color of the corneal stroma, and must be distinguished from hyperemia of the conjunctival vessels. May spread to the perilimbic corneal tissue. Called also ciliary flush
  19. cone of light
    a triangular reflection observed during an ear examination when the light of an otoscope is focused on the image of the malleus, always anterior
  20. conjugate gaze
    eye movements tract together, parallel eye movements
  21. conjunctiva
    clear mucous membrane with two easily visable components: bulbar conjunctiva covers most of the anterior eyeball; palpebral conjunctiva lines the eyelids
  22. conjunctivitis
    pink eye - Conjuctivitis is an inflammation or redness of the lining of the white part of the eye and the underside of the eyelid (conjunctiva) that can be caused by infection, allergic reaction, or physical agents like infrared or ultraviolet light.
  23. Cholesteatoma
    squamous epithelium that is trapped within the skull base that can erode and destroy important structures within the temporal bone
  24. consensual reaction
    pupillary constriction in the opposite eye
  25. convergence
    an extraocular movement, eyes follow object to within 5-8 cm of the nose
  26. cover/uncover test
    may reveal a slight or latent muscle imbalance not otherwise seen, deviated eye
  27. differential
    diagnosis generated by identifying attributes of each symptom and pursuing related details fundemental to recognizing patterns of disease
  28. diplopia
    double vision
  29. dysconjugate
    gaze eye movements don't tract together
  30. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  31. ectropion
    eversion or turning outward, as of the margin of an eyelid
  32. entropion
    inversion, or the turning inward, as of the margin of an eyelid
  33. epistaxis
    bleeding from nasal passageways. Etiology: trauma, inflammation, drying and crusting of the mucosa, tumors, foreign bodies, bleeding disorders
  34. esotropia
    form of strabismus in which the visual axes converge. Also called convergent strabismus, crossed eyes
  35. exophthalmos
    abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
  36. extraocular movements
    coordinated action of six muscles, the four rectus and two oblique, control the eye
  37. exudate
    any fluid released from the body with a high concentration of proteins, cells, or solid debris
  38. goiter
    thyroid gland enlargement which may be caused by thyroiditis, benign thyroid nodules, malignancy, iodine deficiency or any condition that causes hyperfunction or hypofunction of the gland
  39. growths or FB
    can cause conductive hearing loss (foreign bodies) squamous cell CA, psoriasis, artifacts
  40. hearing loss
    conductive (10%) or sensorineural (90%)
  41. hearing loss associated symptoms
    earache, vertigo, tinnitus, drainage, itchy, pressure, fever, dizzy, facial numbness, headache
  42. hemianopsia
    loss of vision in one half of the visual field of one or both eyes
  43. hirsutism
    excess hair growth
  44. Hoarseness
    altered quality of the voice (husky, rough, harsh). Usually attributed to disease of the larynx or pressure on the laryngeal nerves
  45. hordeolum
    sty, a localized inflammatory swelling of one or more glands of the eyelid (glands of Zeis or glands of Moll), points externally, smaller, more painful and may discharge some purulent fluid, self-limiting - short duration
  46. hyperopia
    farsightedness
  47. irides
    plural of iris
  48. isthmus
    narrow band of thyroid tissue connecting the right and left lobes of the thyroid gland
  49. kyphosis
    exaggeration or angulation of the posterior curve of the thoracic spine, giving rise to the condition commonly known as hunchback (Pott's curvature)
  50. lacrimation
    tear fluid to protect the conjuntiva and cornea from drying, inhibits microbal growth, gives a smooth optical surface to the cornea
  51. larynx
    musculocartilaginous organ at the upper end of the trachea, below the root of the tongue, lined with ciliated mucous membrane, that is part of the airway and the vocal apparatus
  52. macula
    surrounds the fovea but has no discernable margins (named for a microscopic yellow spot)
  53. Medications that can cause sensorineural hearing loss
    ototoxic medications including aminoglycosides, chemotherapy, ASA, quinine, loop diuretics
  54. malleus
    largest of three auditory ossicles in the middle ear. It is attached to the eardrum and articulates with the incus.
  55. maxilla
    paired bone with several processes that forms most of the upper face, roof of the mouth, sides of the nasal cavity and the floor of the orbit. Alveolar process of the maxilla supports the teeth, which is the basis for calling the maxilla the upper jaw
  56. meibomian gland
    parallel row of glands lining the eyelids and opening on the lid margin, location for cyst called chalazion
  57. chalazion
    infection of the meibomian glands, points internally, chronic problem, requires treatment
  58. Ménière's disease
    a disorder caused by excess pressure within the inner ear, characterized by recurrent vertigo (dizziness), hearing loss, tinnitus (a roaring, buzzing or ringing sound in the ears), and aural fullness (idiopathic)
  59. miosis
    abnormal contraction of the pupils, possibly due to irritation of the oculomotor system or paralysis of dilators
  60. moon facies
    as in Cushing's Syndrome
  61. mydriasis
    pronounced or abnormal dilation of the pupil
  62. myopia
    nearsightedness
  63. neovascularization
    formation of new blood vessels in the retina
  64. noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss
    gradual and irreversible, due to cochlear hair cell damage as a result of loud noise exposure
  65. normocephalic
    head and all major organs of the head are in a normal condition and without significant abnormalities
  66. nystagmus
    fine rhythmic oscillation of the eyes (normal in extreme lateral gaze)
  67. occiput
    the back part of the skull
  68. odynophagia
    pain with swallowing
  69. otalgia
    pain in the ear
  70. Otitis externa
    inflammation of the ear canal
  71. Otitis media
    inflammation of the middle ear
  72. Otosclerosis
    an abnormal sponge-like bone growing in the middle ear which prevents the ear bones from vibrating in response to sound waves
  73. otoliths
    small particles, composed of a combination of a gelatinous matrix and calcium carbonate in the viscous fluid of the saccule and utricle. The inertia of these small particles causes them to stimulate hair cells when the head moves
  74. otorrhea
    inflammation of the ear with discharge (serous, blood, or purulent), usually soft wax, debris from irritation in the ear canal, or discharge of fluid through a perforated ear drum, frequently associated with ear pain. Can be caused by trauma, acute or chronic otitis media or otitis externa
  75. ototoxicity
    having detrimental effect on CN VIII or the organs of hearing
  76. palpebral
    palpebral conjunctiva lines the eyelids
  77. papilledema
    swelling of the optic disc and anterior buldging of the physiologic cup
  78. parotitis
    inflammation of the parotid gland
  79. patency
    the state of being freely open
  80. Perforated TM
    often a sequela of infections of the middle ear, can also occur as a result of trauma (blow to the head, air or water pressure, instrumentation)
  81. periorbital
    surrounding the socket of the eye
  82. pharynx
    the passageway for air from the nasal cavity to the larynx and for food from the mouth to the esophagus
  83. photophobia
    unusual intolerance to light, occuring in measles, rubella, meningitis, and inflammation of the eyes
  84. pinguecula
    yellow triangular thickening of the bulbar conjuntiva on the inner and outer margins of the cornea (generally due to excessive exposure to sunlight)
  85. polyps
    a swelling or excrescence (tumor) emanating from a mucous membrane; commonly found in vascular organs such as the nose, uterus, colon, and rectum
  86. preauricular
    located in front of the ear
  87. presbycussis
    age-related sensorineural hearing loss due to both genetic and environmental factors
  88. presbyopia
    permanent loss of accomodation of the crystalline lens of the eye that occurs when people are in their mid-40s, marked by the inabillity to maintain focus on objects held near to the eye
  89. pterygium
    triangular thickening of the bulbar conjunctiva extending from the inner canthus to the border of the cornea with the apex toward the pupil
  90. ptosis
    dropping or drooping of the upper eyelid from paralysis
  91. retro-orbital
    behind the eye
  92. rhinorrhea
    drainage from the nose associated with nasal congestion, a sense of stuffiness or obstruction. Etiology: viral infections, allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, medication side effects, sinus infection, rhinitis medicamentosa
  93. rhinitis medicamentosa
    A noninfectious, nonallergic rhinitis caused by rebound vasodilation linked to the use of topical vasoconstricting decongestant sprays for more than 4–6 days.
  94. Rinne
    the use of a tuning fork to compare bone conduction hearing with air conduction. Vibrating fork is held on the mastoid process of the ear until the patient no longer hears it, then it is held close to the external auditory meatus, if the subject still hears the vibrations, air conduction exceeds bone conduction which is a normal finding.
  95. sclera
    outer layer of the eyeball made of fibrous connective tissue
  96. sclerosis
    an induration or hardening, especially from inflammation and in diseases of the interstitial substance; applied chiefly to such hardening of the nervous system or to hardening of the blood vessels
  97. scotoma
    an island-like blind spot in the visual field, usually associated with migraines
  98. serous
    thin or watery, rather than syrupy, thick, or viscous
  99. stapes
    the ossicle in the middle ear that articulates with the incus, the footplate of the stapes fits into the oval window
  100. sternocleidomastoid
    one of two muscles arising from the sternum and inner part of the clavicle
  101. sty
    a localized inflammatory swelling of one or more glands of the eyelid, mildly tender and may discharge some purulent fluid
  102. subconjunctival
    beneath the conjunctiva
  103. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL)
    unclear etiology, increased risk for CVA
  104. Systemic causes of sensorineural hearing loss
    meningitis, autoimmune diseases, MS, syphilis, viruses, thyrotoxicosis, other
  105. three bones of the ear
    Malleus (seen in cone of light, articulates with incus), incus, stapes (articulates with incus and fits into oval window)
  106. tinnitus
    a subjective ringing, buzzing, tinkling, or hissing sound in the ear with no external stimulus, can coexist with conductive or sensorineural hearing loss, lesion anywhere along the auditory pathway, may be masked by external noise
  107. tonic pupil
    Adie's pupil - pupil is large, regular, and usually unilateral, reaction to lights is severely reduced and slowed or even absent
  108. tragus
    cartilaginous projection in front of the exterior meatus of the ear
  109. transillumination
    inspection of a cavity or organ by passing a light through its walls, when pus or a lesion is present, the transmission of light is diminished or absent
  110. turbinates
    concha, scroll-like bone on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
  111. tympanic
    resonate
  112. umbo
    the central depressed portion of the concavity on the lateral surface of the tympanic membrane, marks the point where the malleus is attached to the inner surface
  113. vertex
    the top of the head
  114. vertigo
    "dizziness", sensation of true rotational movement of the patient or the surroundings, sensations point primarily to a problem in the labyrinths of the inner ear, peripheral lesions of CN VIII, or lesions in its central pathways or nuclei in the brain, maybe peripheral or central (lesion in CNS). Peripheral vertigo include BPPV, vestibular neuronitis, Ménière's disease, and immune-mediated inner-ear disease
  115. BPPV
    benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - Episodic vertigo that lasts for seconds and is associated with head or body position changes
  116. Vestibular neuronitis
    imbalance in vestibular neurologic input to the central nervous system characterized by abrupt onset of severe, debilitating vertigo with associated unsteadiness, nausea, and vomiting
  117. Immune-mediated inner-ear disease
    characterized by disequilibrium, ataxia (failure of muscular coordination; irregularity of muscular action), motion intolerance, positional and episodic vertigo - includes Ménière's syndrome
  118. Weber
    a test for unilateral deafness, a vibrating tuning fork is held against the midline of the top of the head is perceived as being so located by those with equal hearing ability in the ears, to persons with unilateral conductive-type deafness, the sound will be perceived as being more pronounced on the diseased side, in persons with unilateral nerve-type deafness, the sound will be perceived as being louder in the good ear.
  119. zygoma
    the long arch that joins the zygomatic processes of the temporal and malar bones on the sides of the skull, the malar bone
  120. conductive hearing loss
    problems in the external or middle ear
  121. sensorineural hearing loss
    problems in the inner ear, the cochlear nerve, or its central connections in the brain CN VIII
  122. hematemesis/hemoptysis
    coughed up or vomiting blood
  123. pharyngitis
    sore throat - inflammation of pharynx
  124. types of sore throat
    • Infectious:
    •    Bacterial: group A strep, gonorrhea, diphtheria, H. influenzae (epiglottitis), syphilis
    •    Viral: rhinovirus, adenovirus, herpes, CMV, EBV, HIV, influenza, coxsackievirus
    •    Fungal: candida
    • AND
    • Noninfectious:
    •    Most common: allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, postnasal drip, GERD
    •    Less common: acute thyroiditis, head and neck malignancies, postoperative, postirradiation, burn or inhalation injuries, autoimmune disorders
  125. limbus
    where the bulbar conjunctiva meets the cornea
  126. tarsal plates
    firm strips of connective tissue within the eyelids
  127. levator palpebrae
    muscle that raises the upper eyelid, is innervated by the oculomotor nerve CN III
  128. lacrimal puncta
    two holes medially located on the eyelids where tear fluid drains to the lacrimal sac
  129. canaliculi
    also known as lacrimal ducts, these tube-like structures carry the tears from the eyes (through the puncta) to the lacrimal sac
  130. ciliary body
    the part of the vascular tunic of the eye that connects the choroid with the iris, produces aqueous humor for the anterior chamber of the eye
  131. ciliary muscles
    muscles that control the thickness of the lens, allowing the eye to focus on near or distant objects
  132. canal of Schlemm
    drainage for the aqueous humor, helps to control pressure inside the eye
  133. fundus
    posterior part of the eye seen through the opthalmoscope, includes retina, choroid, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels
  134. fovea
    darkened circle on the posterior of the eye that marks the point of central vision
  135. red reflex
    when light beam is shined on the pupil and orange/red glow is visible, absense of red reflex suggests an opacity of the lens (cataract) or possibly of the vitreous, less commonly a detacted retina or in children retinoblastoma. Artificial eyes have no red reflex
  136. macular degeneration
    cause of poor central vision in older adults
  137. cataract
    densities in the lens
  138. eustachian tube
    connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx
  139. GAS
    group A ß-hemolytic strep
  140. suppurative
    forming pus (ex: peritonsillar abscess)
  141. Centor Clinical Prediction Rule
    • -hx of fever
    • -absence of cough
    • -tonsillar exudates
    • -anterior cervical adenopathy
    • (if patient has 2 or more, do rapid strep test)
  142. PND
    • post nasal drip
    • (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea)
  143. URI
    upper respiratory infection
  144. otorrhea
    discharge from ear
  145. pars flaccida
    • the small, triangular portion of the tympanic membrane lying between the lateral process of the malleus and the margins of the tympanic incisure
  146. pars tensa
    • the drumlike part of the tympanic membrane

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