COM 408 Test 1

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COM 408 Test 1
2013-02-10 22:51:32
COM 408 Test

COM 408 Test 1
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  1. self-reflexivity
    the practice of carefully considerating the ways in which researchers' interactions with, and interpertations of, the research scene
  2. thick description
    a concept coined by Clifford Geertz (1973), which captures the fact that researchers immerse themsleves in, and report on, particulars before moving toward grander statements and theories
  3. phronetic research
    research that is concerned with practical contextual knowledge and is carried out with an aim toward social commentary, action, and transformation
  4. second-order interpretations
    researchers' construct explanations for the particpants' explanations
  5. autoethnography
    autobiographical genre of writing that connects the analysis of one's own identity, culture, feelings, and values to larger societal issues
  6. iterative approach
    the researcher alternates between considering existing theories and paying heed to emergent field site data
  7. phenomenon
    the focus or topic of study
  8. field (of study)
    all the types of spaces where one could observe a phenomeno of interest; it consists of many potential sites, settings, and participants
  9. sites
    a geographical or architectural area within a field
  10. settings
    the specific parameters of the space of study within a field and a site
  11. participants
    the focal people of the study
  12. satisfice
    the common practice oc coming up with a decision that is merely adequate rather than optimal (Simon, 1997)
  13. scene
    a catch-all term that refers to the field, sties, setting, and the group of participants
  14. yield
    the specific desired research project outcomes (e.g. a class paper, a dissertation project, a publication)
  15. suitable
    the research project should encompass most , if not all of the theoretical issues and characteristics ofi nterest in terms of the research topic or problem
  16. feasible (practical)
    the research project should be practical, given the time and resources available
  17. action
    contextual talk, texts, and interactions (e.g. documents, emails, verbal routines, text messages, and comments)
  18. autoethnography
    the systematic study, analysis, and narrative descrption of one's own experiences, interactions, culture, and identity
  19. bricolage
    the practice of making creative and resourceful use of a variety of piecse of data that happen to be available
  20. colonialism
    refers to the control and exploitation of a weaker or racially different culture by a stronger (usually Western European) culture
  21. deductive reasoning
    a "top-down" type of reasoning, that begins with broad generalizations and theories and then moves to the observation of particular circumstances in order to confirm or falsify a the theory
  22. emic
    a perspective in which behavior is described from the actor's point of view and is context-specific
  23. enthocentrism
    the belief that one's own racial and ethnic values adn way of being are more important than, or superior to, those of other groups
  24. ethnographic methods
    the use of particpant observation and field interviews, but not necessarily accompanied by immersion in the field of by a holistic cultural analysis
  25. ethnography
    researching marked by long-term immersion into a culture and by the thick description of a variety of cultural aspects including language use, rituals, ceremonies, relationships, and artifacts
  26. etic
    a perspective in which behaviori s described according to externally derived, non-culture-specific criteria
  27. gestalt
    a German word meaning literaly "form" or "shape" and used in many European languages to refer to an integrated system or culture where the whole is mroe than the sum of its parts
  28. grand narratives
    powerful systems of stories suggesting that people or processes unfold ina  parcticular way (e.g. the notion that aging equates with decline)
  29. grounded theory
    developed by Glasier and Strauss (1967) and extended by Strauss and Corbin (1190) and Charmazs (2006), grounded theory is a systematic inductive analysis of data (i.e. an analysis from the group up, or a "bottom-up" analysis
  30. human subject protections
    codes developed to protect people ("human subjects") from unethical research
  31. impressionist tales
    creative, personal tales that present ethnographic knowledge in teh form of poems, scripts, short stories, layered accounts, and dramas
  32. inductive reasoning
    a "bottom-up" type of reasoning that begins with specific observations and particular cirumstances and then moves on to broader generalizations and theories
  33. narrative inquiry
    research that views stories - whether gathered through field notes, interviews, oral tales, blogs, letters, or autobiographies-as fundamental to human experience
  34. naturalistic inquiry
    the analysis of social action in uncontrived field settings
  35. Nuremberg Code
    a research ethics code that arose in response to the Nazis' inhumane experimentation; the code includes clauses on vluntary and informed consent, freedom from coercion, comprehension of the potential risks and benefits of the research, and a scientifically valid research design
  36. qualitative methods
    an umbrella phrase that refers to the collection, analysis, and interpertation of itnerview, participant observation, and document data in order to understand and describe meanings, relationships, and patterns
  37. quantitative methods
    research methods that use measurement and statistics to transform empirical data into numbrs and to devellop mathematical models that quanitfy behavior
  38. sensitizing concepts
    interpretive devices that serve s jumping-off points or lenses for qualitative study
  39. structure
    enduring schools of knowledge, societal norms, and myths that shape and delimit action
  40. axiology
    a discipline dealing with the values associates with an area of research and thoerizing (e.g. the values of social justice are empahsized by the critical paradigm)
  41. crises of representation
    a common postmodern notion according to which all representations of meaning depending on their relationships with other signs, and therefore, it is impossible to identify one single true representation of reality
  42. critical paradigm
    a way of viewing the worldthat is based on the idea that thought is fundamentaly mediated by power relations and that data cannot be separated from ideaology
  43. deconstructionism
    a postermodern method of analysis introduced by  Derrida in which researchers dismantle a text, accentuate foundational word opposition, and show the complexity and instability of the text
  44. differance
    a primary theoretical basis of deconsturctionism, this is the method in which reearchers point out the non-presence of certain words or meanings in a text
  45. duality of structure
    a key part of structuration theory, this concept refers to the idea that structure is created from the top down and from the bottom up; structures are only made "valid" when individuals follow them and make decisions that are based upon them
  46. epistemology
    a traditional branch of philsophy that is concerned with the nature of knowledge
  47. ethnography of communication (EOC)
    a theoretical framework developed by Dell Hymes, which is concerned with linguistic rules and how communication revelas norms of identity, relationships and culture
  48. feminism
    a theoretical approach that seeks to transform patriarchy; often marked by research on topics related to women, an ethical method of care, self-reflexivity, and attention to multiple voices in the field
  49. hegemony
    occurs when people see hierarchial relationshipsa s normal, natural, and unchangeable and therefore accept consent internalize and are complicit in reproducing norms that are not in their own best interests
  50. hermeneutics
    the discpline of interperting texts by empathically imaging the experience, motivations, and context of the speaker/author, and then by engaging in a circular analysis that alternates between the data text and the situated scene
  51. hyperreality
    the postmodern idea that many representations or signifiers are constructed and consumed, but lack a specific or materially authentic referent
  52. ideology
    a set of doctrines, myths, or beliefs, which guide or have power over individuals, groups, or societies
  53. incommensurability
    a situation where choosing one paradigm or way of seeing the world necessarily precludes another paradigm or way of seeing hte world (e.g. positivist notion of a single true reality is incommensurable with the postmodern view that reality is multiple)
  54. interpretive paradigm
    a way of seeing both reality and knowledge as constructed and reproduced through communication, interaction, and practice
  55. looking-glass self
    a concept borrowed from symbolic interactionism, which suggests that identity is largely created through the reactions of others (i.e. we see what others tell us they see)
  56. methodology
    strategies for gathering, collecting, and analyzing data
  57. ontology
    a traditional branch of philsophy, which is concerned with the nature of reality
  58. paradigms
    preferred ways of understanding reality, building knowledge, and gathering ifnormation about the world
  59. participatory action research (PAR)
    a form of research based upon the notion that researchers should work together with research participants to help them address, understand, or improve local issues or dilemmas
  60. pastiche
    a postmodern term that refers to the endless imitation, appropriation, and recycling of older cultural forms with a vew to making new but familiar forms (e.g. much of whati s fashionable today layers trends from the past)
  61. positivist paradigm
    perhaps the most common paradigm among traditional scientists, it suggests that there is one true reality "out there" in the world - one that already exists and is waiting to be discovered
  62. postmodern/postructural paradigm
    a paradigm that approaches knowledge and power as dispersed, unstable, and plural, highlighting occasions of domination and self-subordination, but also avenues for reistance and change
  63. post-positivism
    like positivism, this paradigm, assumes a single true reality, but suggests that human's understanding of reality is inherently partial and that is impossible to fully capture reality
  64. rhizomatic
    a term derived from the ancient Greek noun rhizoma ("root"), this qualifier emerges in the postmodern paradigm, where it refers to the idea that meaning is root-like and therefore interconnected, interdependent, and complex
  65. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    a hypothesis connected to symbolic interactionism; it suggests that we do not see or understand issues or concepts for which we do not have words
  66. sedimented
    solid and difficult to remedy; the term is used by postructural scholars, who argue that the examination of power relations is necessary in order to understand why some problems and ideas are held with more merit than others
  67. self-fulfilling prophecy
    the idea that people tend to shape themselves according to the expectationso f others
  68. sensemaking
    a theory deveoped by Karl Weick and typified by the three-part process of enactment, selection, and rentention; it emphasizes meaning making, ambiguity, and identity
  69. signs
    natural symptons or indicators of an immediate (here and now) stimulus in the environment (e.g. thunder is a sign of storm)
  70. simulacrum
    in postmodern theory, this term refers to a representation that is a copy of something that never actually existed (e.g. Disneyland's "Mainstreet"
  71. social construction
    the interpretive idea that reality and knowledge are constructed and reproduced by people through communication, interaction, and practice
  72. structuration theory
    this theory directs the researcher's attention to the relationship between individuals and institutions; it focuses on the ways cultures, organziations, and social systems are constituted or created through the micro-practices of individual people
  73. symbol
    a word of gesture that arbitarily stands for an abstract concept; the linear sequence of letters S-T-O-R-M serves as an English-language symbol for a storm, with which it has no inherent connection
  74. symbolic interactionism
    researchers using this theoretical aproach (whcih was devloped by Herbert Blumer) investigate how meaning and identity are co-created through interaction
  75. theory
    a bundled system of principles that serve to explain certain phenomena
  76. triangulate
    a practice in which researchers use multiple types and sources of data, variant methods of collection, as well as various theoretical frames and multiple researchers
  77. verstehen
    a German verb meaning "to understand", used in English as a noun describing participants' first-person perspective on their personal experience as wel as on their society, culture, and history
  78. access proposal
    a proposal for scene gatekeeprs that efficiently describes the rsearch project (it has title, practial rationale, description of the proposed research, statment of experience, and contact information)
  79. artificacts
    man-made objects in the research context
  80. briefing interview
    an interview that creates the opportunity to informally meet with a series of participants, invite questions, and ask participants for advice as one moves forward in negotating access
  81. contact information log
    a database docment that tracks key contacts met in the process of relationship with the contact, and relevance to the research
  82. fieldplay
    the adventure, curiosity and playfulness that occur during participant observation experiences
  83. gatekeeper(s)
    the person(s) who hold the figurative (or at times literal) keys to research site access
  84. liminality
    a term originally defined by Victor Turner, which describes the sense of being betwixt and between two locations
  85. member diaries
    journals in which participants are asked to enter personal information related to research
  86. narrative tour
    a written document, usually accompany a visual map, that explores a scene's physical layout, feelings, smells, sounds, tastes, and temperatures, also providing rich description and tentative interpretations
  87. participants
    the individuals whom qualitative researchers study are not known as "subjects", but as participants because they create, and participate in the research process togehter with researchers.
  88. participant information table
    a table used to organize information about particpants; it may include a variety of demographic and methodological data
  89. participant observation
    a method through which researchers generate understanding and knowledge by watching, interacting, asking questions, collecting documents, and making audio or video recordings.
  90. public documents
    websites, brochedures, pamphlets, or advertisments that provide information about a research site
  91. textual harvesting
    the practice of using information (usually gathered from the Internet) without permission from the participant or regard for ethically questional repercussions
  92. total institutions
    a term developed by Goffmant o refer to organizations like cruise ships, prisons, and hospitals, where some inhabitants of the institution never go home and therefore are controlled in a more total manner than in typical organizations
  93. visual map
    a visual representation of a research site, roughly drawn or professionally developed, that details the physical scene and key positions of the particpants
  94. assent
    used instead of consent, with individuals who are vulnerable or have diminished capacities - such as children, the sick, and the mentally disabled
  95. Belmont report
    a statement of basic human subject principles issued by the National Comission for the Protection of Human Subjects
  96. deductive disclosure
    the indirect identification of respondents through the use and piecing together of known data
  97. deliverables
    material outcomes of a research project such as (1) conference papers and presentations; (2) external grant applications; (3) scholarly articles; (4) white papers; (5) new class syllabi; (6) a strategic plan for a new center of research; (7) coordination of guest lecturers or; (8) a class paper
  98. exempt review
    the quickest type of review for an IRB application; this level of review pertains to studies that exame public behavior and grant anonymity to particpants - for example, a study of how dog walkers communicate at local parks
  99. expedited review
    the most common type of IRB review, where signed consent or assnet forms are required and the researcher maintains a record of the participants and of their personal information
  100. full-board review
    the most involved type of IRB review; it is used when the research is risky - as in observing terrorist groups - or when particpants are especially vulernable and in need of extra protection - for example they are mentally impaired
  101. human subject protections
    codes developed to protect people from unethical research
  102. informed consent
    the process by which researchers inform potential particpants about risks, benefits, and what else is involved in agreeing to participate in a study before they decide to do it on their own will
  103. rationale
    the part of a research paper or proposal that illustrates why your study matters and answers the question "Who cares?" from a theoretical, practical, and methodological point of view
  104. research instruments
    the tools used to collect the data; for qualitative researchers, these are the researchers themselves, togehter with interview questions, focus-group plans, and open-ended surveys
  105. research proposal
    a detailed plan that lays out the purpose, path, and procedures of the project