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What is concentration?
amount of solute present in a given amount of solution
What are hte three types of percent?
Explain % w/v
mass of components/ total volume of solution x 100
Explain % v/v
Volume of component/ total mass of solution x 100
Explain % w/w
mass of component/ total mass of solution x 100
What are parts per million
- mass of component / total mass of soluiotn x 10^5
- = % w/w x 10^4
What is 1 ppm equal to?
- =1 g of component/ 1,000,000 grams of solutioin
- = 1 mg of component/ 1 kg of solution
What is mole fraction?
Moles of A/ Total number of moles
What is molarity?
Moles of solute/ Liter of Solution
What is molality?
moles of solute/ kg of solvent
Dilution of Solutions:
Factors affecting solubility
- surface area of solid solute
Most substances become more __ as temperature rises, although the exact relationship is often __ and __.
Most gases become __ in water as the temperature rises. The concentration units are __ at a gas pressure of 1 atm.
- the solubility of a gas is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the solution
What are colligative properties?
What are some?
- properties that depend on the number of solute particles in solution but not properties of the solvent
- 1) vapor pressure lowering
- 2) boiling point elevation
- 3) freezing point depression
- 4) osmotic pressure
Number of solute particles:
van't Hoff factor: i= moles of particles in solution/ moles of solute dissolved
- Psoln=Psolv X solv
- For a single solute solution, Xsolute=1-X solv
Change in vapor pressure of the solvent (the vapor pressure lowering)
DeltaP=Psolv x Xsolute
What happens if both components are volatile (have measurable vapor pressures)?
the vapor pressure has a value intermediate between hte vapor pressure of the two liquids
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