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Rousseau – nurturing
B. F. Skinner
- Operant conditioning – learning to repeat a
- behavior b/c of the consequenes
Behaviors dependent on (positive or negative) reinforcement or punishment
in to out, core develops before fingers
- The creation of synapses – connections b/w
- Occurs rapidly during first years after birth
- Happens in spurts
- Brain weight quadruples by age 4
- Zone of proximal development – above indep level but below frustration level; what can be learned w/ help
- Scaffolding - building learning one block at a time.
- Information-Processing Theory –
- Theoretical perspective that uses a computer as a model to explain how the mind manages info. Sensory info -> sensory memory->info selected for processing->short-term memory->info to be stored permanently (long term memory) ->info needed to comprehend new info/techniques for processing new info.
building learning one block at a time.
- Bioecological theory – explains
- devel in terms of relationships between individuals and their env, or
- interconnected contexts. Person (biological context) -> mesosys (immediate
- context), exosystem (socioeconomic context), macrosys (cultural context).
- develops from top to bottom,
- (brain first)
- stable patterns in how ppl relate to those
- around them
basic behavioral and emotional predispositions
- Myelinization – formation of myelin sheath
- covering individual axons and insulating/speeding up neuronal processes
Noam Chomsky – innate ability called LAD (language acquisition device)
(skinner) – you can teach ppl to think by offering dif rewards
- infants learn to talk b/c they pay attention to
Cognitive development theory:
- Sensorimoter birth – 18mo
- Preoperational 18mo – 6yrs
- Concrete Operational 6-12yrs
- Formal operational 12+years
Scheme or shema – internal cognitive structure (learned knowledge)
- Assimilation – making use of experiences
- Accommodation – adjusting a scheme
- Equilibration – balancing assimilation and
- Primary circular reaction: simple
- repetitive actions organized around the infant’s own body
- Secondary circular reaction: baby
- repeatedly exhibits behavior to produce a desired outcome
- Means-end behavior: purposeful
- behavior to achieve a goal
- Tertiary circular reaction:
- experiment with different behaviors to ascertain the outcomes
internal cognitive structure (learned knowledge)
studies done over time, compares group to itself
- Social cognitive theory – theories that emphasize mental processes in devel like
Social cognitive theory
theories that emphasize mental processes in devel likelogic&memory. (bandura)
Primitive reflexes such as curled toes in an infant
- Primitive reflexes
- Controlled by less sophisticated parts of the
- brain, should disappear by 6-8 months.
- Moro or startle reflex
- Dependent on four factors
- Attention, Memory, Physical capabilities, Motivation
- Albert Bandura – Social cognitive theory – theories that emphasize mental processes
- in devel like logic&memory.
- Psychosexual theory – oral, anal, phallic,
- latency, genital stages.
- Id –libido
- Ego – thinking element
- Superego – moral judgment
Receptive language – the ability to understand words 8mo begin to store words, 9-10 can understand 20-30 words, 13mo 100+words and sentences. First words by 12mo
Expressive style –early vocab linked to social relationships
Learning language viewpoints
- (skinner) – you can teach ppl to think by offering dif rewards
- Nativist– Noam Chomsky – innate ability called LAD (language acquisition device)
Interactionist– infants learn to talk b/c they pay attention to language
Influences on language development – infant direct speech (baby talk)
Early stages of learning development
Birth-1mo crying, 1-2mo laughing cooing, 6-7mo babbling, 9-10mo hand gestures
Receptive language – the ability to understand words
8mo begin to store words, 9-10 can understand 20-30 words, 13mo 100+words and sentences. 1st words by 12mo
Holophrases – Combining a single word w/ gestures to make a complete thought
Individ differences in lang devel
Expressive style –early vocab linked to social relationships
Referential style – early vocab made up of named things /people. Often advanced in understanding adult language.
making use of experiences
threadlike extensions of the cytoplasm of a neuron. receive signals.
- also known as a nerve fibre
- long, slender projection of a nerve cell (neuron),
- typically conducts electrical impulsesaway from the neuron's cell body. function=transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands.
common to all, such as social clock
normative history graded
based on your cohort
unique events, genes, timing, sensitive periods, atypical.
Erickson's 8 stages
- psychosocial theory:
- 1 trust vs. mistrust
- 2 autonomy vs. shame/doubt
- 3 initiative vs. guilt
- 4 identity vs. role confusion
- 5 intimacy vs. role confusion
- 6 intimacy vs. isolation
- 7 generatively vs. stagnation
- 8 integrity vs. dispair
(devel influenced by common cultural demands and internal drives. each state requires solution of crisis, healthy devel = ratio of =/- experiences).
identify norms in order to learn ab evolution of species & track devel of individ children
the genetic makeup of a cell
any chromosome pair that is not a sex chromosome (humans have 22)
- using cues from caregiver facial expressions
- helps to figure out novel situations helps to learn to regulate emotions
- o a test to measure the health of babies immediately and 5min after birth.
- o It measures heart rate, respiratory rate, muscle tone, response to stimulation of feet, and color.
a mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors shared by a parent and child.
- an infant's awareness that he/she is a separate person who endures through time and space and can act on the env.
the process of using a scheme to make sense of an event/experience
the gradual elimination of a behavior through repeated nonreinforcement.
a decline in attention that occurs b/c a stimulus has become familiar.