Devel Psych

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tresa
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199571
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Devel Psych
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2013-02-11 22:07:31
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Exam 1: Infant/Child Development
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  1. Innate goodness
    Rousseau – nurturing
  2. Original sin
    • selfish
    • nature, Augustine
  3. B. F. Skinner
    • Operant conditioning – learning to repeat a
    • behavior b/c of the consequenes

    Behaviors dependent on (positive or negative) reinforcement  or punishment
  4. Proximodistal
    development
    in to out, core develops before fingers
  5. Synaptogenesis
    • The creation of synapses – connections b/w
    • neurons
    • Occurs rapidly during first years after birth
    • Happens in spurts
    • Brain weight quadruples by age 4
  6. Vygotsky
    • Zone of proximal development – above indep level but below frustration level; what can be learned w/ help
    • Scaffolding - building learning one block at a time.

    • Information-Processing Theory –
    • Theoretical perspective that uses a computer as a model to explain how the mind manages info. Sensory info -> sensory memory->info selected for processing->short-term memory->info to be stored permanently (long term memory) ->info needed to comprehend new info/techniques for processing new info.
  7. Scaffolding
    building learning one block at a time.
  8. Bronfenbrenner
    • Bioecological theory – explains
    • devel in terms of relationships between individuals and their env, or
    • interconnected contexts. Person (biological context) -> mesosys (immediate
    • context), exosystem (socioeconomic context), macrosys (cultural context).
  9. Cophalocandel
    • develops from top to bottom,
    • (brain first)
  10. personality
    • stable patterns in how ppl relate to those
    • around them
  11. Temperament
    basic behavioral and emotional predispositions
  12. myelin sheath
    • Myelinization – formation of myelin sheath
    • covering individual axons and insulating/speeding up neuronal processes
  13. Nativist
    Noam Chomsky – innate ability called LAD (language acquisition device)
  14. Behaviorist
    (skinner) – you can teach ppl to think by offering dif rewards
  15. Interactionist
    • infants learn to talk b/c they pay attention to
    • language
  16. Object
    permanence
    Piaget
  17. Piaget
    Cognitive development theory:

    • Sensorimoter birth – 18mo
    • Preoperational 18mo – 6yrs
    • Concrete Operational 6-12yrs
    • Formal operational 12+years

    Scheme or shema – internal cognitive structure (learned knowledge)

    • Assimilation – making use of experiences
    • Accommodation – adjusting a scheme
    • Equilibration – balancing assimilation and
    • accommodation

    Object permanence


    • Primary circular reaction: simple
    • repetitive actions organized around the infant’s own body

    • Secondary circular reaction: baby
    • repeatedly exhibits behavior to produce a desired outcome

    • Means-end behavior: purposeful
    • behavior to achieve a goal

    • Tertiary circular reaction:
    • experiment with different behaviors to ascertain the outcomes
  18. Scheme
    internal cognitive structure (learned knowledge)
  19. Longitudinal research
    studies done over time, compares group to itself
  20. Bandura
    • Social cognitive theory – theories that emphasize mental processes in devel like
    • logic&memory.
  21. Social cognitive theory
    theories that emphasize mental processes in devel likelogic&memory. (bandura)
  22. Babinski
    Primitive reflexes such as curled toes in an infant
  23. Moro reflex
    • Primitive reflexes
    • Controlled by less sophisticated parts of the
    • brain, should disappear by 6-8 months.
    • Moro or startle reflex
  24. Observational learning
    • Dependent on four factors
    • Attention, Memory, Physical capabilities,               Motivation
    • Albert Bandura – Social cognitive theory – theories that emphasize mental processes
    • in devel like logic&memory.
  25. S. Freud
    • Psychosexual theory – oral, anal, phallic,
    • latency, genital stages.
    • Id –libido
    • Ego – thinking element
    • Superego – moral judgment
  26. Expressive/receptive
    language
    Receptive language – the ability to understand words 8mo begin to store words, 9-10 can understand 20-30 words, 13mo 100+words and sentences. First words by 12mo

    Expressive style –early vocab linked to social relationships
  27. Language development
    Learning language viewpoints

    • Behaviorist
    • (skinner) – you can teach ppl to think by offering dif rewards
    •   
    • Nativist– Noam Chomsky – innate ability called LAD (language acquisition device)

    Interactionist– infants learn to talk b/c they pay attention to language

    Influences on language development – infant direct speech (baby talk)

    Early stages of learning development

    Birth-1mo crying, 1-2mo laughing cooing, 6-7mo babbling, 9-10mo hand gestures

    Receptive language – the ability to understand words

    8mo begin to store words, 9-10 can understand 20-30 words, 13mo 100+words and sentences. 1st words by 12mo

    Holophrases – Combining a single word w/ gestures to make a complete thought

    Individ differences in lang devel

    Expressive style –early vocab linked to social relationships

    Referential style – early vocab made up of named things /people. Often advanced in understanding adult language.
  28. Assimilation
    making use of experiences
  29. dendrite
    threadlike extensions of the cytoplasm of a neuron. receive signals.
  30. axon
    • also known as a nerve fibre
    • long, slender projection of a nerve cell (neuron),
    • typically conducts electrical impulsesaway from the neuron's cell body. function=transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands.
  31. normantive age-graded
    common to all, such as social clock
  32. normative history graded
    based on your cohort
  33. nonnormative
    unique events, genes, timing, sensitive periods, atypical.
  34. Erickson's 8 stages
    • psychosocial theory:
    • 1 trust vs. mistrust
    • 2 autonomy vs. shame/doubt
    • 3 initiative vs. guilt
    • 4 identity vs. role confusion
    • 5 intimacy vs. role confusion
    • 6 intimacy vs. isolation
    • 7 generatively vs. stagnation
    • 8 integrity vs. dispair

    (devel influenced by common cultural demands and internal drives. each state requires solution of crisis, healthy devel = ratio of =/- experiences).
  35. developmentalists
    identify norms in order to learn ab evolution of species & track devel of individ children
  36. genotype
    the genetic makeup of a cell
  37. autosomes
    any chromosome pair that is not a sex chromosome (humans have 22)
  38. social
    referencing
    • using cues from caregiver facial expressions
    • helps to figure out novel situations helps to learn to regulate emotions
  39. Apgar scale
    • o a test to measure the health of babies immediately and 5min after birth.
    • o It measures heart rate, respiratory rate, muscle tone, response to stimulation of feet, and color.
  40. Synchrony
    a mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors shared by a parent and child.
  41. Subjective
    • self
    • an infant's awareness that he/she is a separate person who endures through time and space and can act on the env.
  42. Accommodation
    the process of using a scheme to make sense of an event/experience
  43. Extinction
    the gradual elimination of a behavior through repeated nonreinforcement.
  44. Habituation
    a decline in attention that occurs b/c a stimulus has become familiar.

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