Biology Exam Review
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What are the different types of adaptation?
Behavioral; Structural; Biochemical; Physiological
A form or structure modified to fit a changed environment
differential survival and reproduction of individuals within a population
the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals
what are the oldest known fossils?
reveals that organisms have evolved in a historical sequence
What are the 3 most important points that came from Darwin's observations?
- 1. Individuals do not evolve, populations evolve
- 2. Natural selection can amplify or diminish
- only heritable traits, acquired characteristics cannot be passed on to
- 3. Evolution is not goal directed and does not lead to perfection,
- favorable traits vary as environments change
the similarity in characteristics that result from common ancestry
different forms of phenotypic characteristics
An example of natural selection
pesticide resistance in insects
Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences between different organisms reveal evolutionary relationships
history of life represented as a tree
Evolutionary Tree Diagram
change in heritable traits in a population over generations
a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time
What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution?
Microevolution is a gradual adaptation of a species to its environment and does not produce a new species in the short term. Macroevolution is dramatic biological changes that begin with the origin of new species.
What are 3 causes of evolutionary change?
- 1. Natural Selection
- 2. Genetic Drift
- 3. Gene Flow
distinction in appearance between males and females of a species
What is an advantage of being a heterozygote instead of a homozygote?
Heterozygotes have greater reproductive success than homozygotes
Can natural selection create perfect organisms?
a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same
How are insects and bacteria resistant to antibiotics or pesticides? What does this mean?
- Spraying pesticides and taking antibiotics more than needed (or before you are
- completely over your virus) can make the surviving insects and bacteria become
- resistant and produce more resistant offspring.
when a new species is formed
What is the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation?
Allopatric speciation is when a species is separated by geography. Sympatric Speciation is when a species is located in the same area.
More than one set of chromosomes
a group of organisms whose members can breed and produce fertile offspring, but
who do not produce fertile offspring with members of other groups
Know the types of reproductive barriers and be able to identify examples of each
Prezygotic (prevent mating or fertilization between species) and Postzygotic (prevent the development of fertile adults)
defines a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the
potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
Biological species concept
Can fusion occur in a hybrid zone?
weak reproductive barriers between the two species, with considerable gene flow,
reverses speciation and two species become one again
many diverse species evolved from a common ancestor. Occur when a few organisms
colonize new unexploited areas and after a mass extinction
Which element was probably not present in the early, primitive earth?
what energy sources were present in early earth?
volcanic activity, lightening, uv radiation
What were the first organisms?
What were the first organisms composed of? RNA, DNA, or protein?
What similarities do protobionts and modern-day cells share?
Structural organization, simple reproduction, simple metabolism, simple homeostasis
What does life require?
Homeostasis and self-replication
Prokaryotes are very important to eukaryotes. Why?
- The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a community of prokaryotes, when small
- prokaryotes capable of aerobic respiration or photosynthesis began living in
- larger cells
documents the main events in the history of life
measures the decay of radioactive isotopes and can gauge the actual ages of fossils and
the rocks in which they are found
can date fossils up to 75,000 years old
with a half life of 1.3 billion years, can be used to date volcanic rocks that are hundreds
of millions of years old.
slow,continuous movement of Earth’s crustal plates on the hot mantle
How did the Himalayas form?
When the plates collide, they form mountains
The hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents were joined
Over the last 600 million years, how many mass extinction events have occurred?
Five; in which 50% or more of the Earth’s species went extinct
(96% of shallow water marine species died because of extreme volcanism in Siberia
releasing CO2, warmed global climate, slowed mixing of ocean water, and reduced
oxygen availability in the ocean)
(50% of marine species and many terrestrial lineages went extinct 65 million years
ago, likely because of a large asteroid that struck the earth, blocking light
and disrupting the global climate)
a group of organisms forms new species, whose adaptations allow them to fill new
habitats or roles in their communities
retaining juvenile traits into adulthood
the gradual adaptation of existing structures to new functions
evolutionary history of a species or a group of species
organisms not closely related evolve similar traits
What are two examples of horizontal gene transfer?
- 1. Gene transfer between a mitochondrial ancestor and the ancestor of eukaryotes
- 2. Gene transfer between a chloroplast ancestor and the ancestor of green plants
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