Biology Exam Review

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courtneydurrett
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199579
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Biology Exam Review
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2013-02-10 22:45:02
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Chapters 13 15
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  1. What are the different types of adaptation?
    Behavioral; Structural; Biochemical; Physiological 
  2. A form or structure modified to fit a changed environment 
    adaptation
  3. differential survival and reproduction of individuals within a population
    natural selection
  4. the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals
    artificial selection
  5. what are the oldest known fossils?
    prokaryote cells
  6. reveals that organisms have evolved in a historical sequence
    fossil record
  7. What are the 3 most important points that came from Darwin's observations?
    • 1. Individuals do not evolve, populations evolve
    • 2. Natural selection can amplify or diminish
    • only heritable traits, acquired characteristics cannot be passed on to
    • offspring
    • 3. Evolution is not goal directed and does not lead to perfection,
    • favorable traits vary as environments change
  8. the similarity in characteristics that result from common ancestry
    homology
  9. different forms of phenotypic characteristics
    Polymorphism
  10. An example of natural selection
    pesticide resistance in insects
  11. Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences between different organisms reveal evolutionary relationships
    Molecular Biology
  12. history of life represented as a tree
    Evolutionary Tree Diagram
  13. change in heritable traits in a population over generations
    Evolution
  14. a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time
    Population
  15. What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution? 
    Microevolution is a gradual adaptation of a species to its environment and does not produce a new species in the short term. Macroevolution is dramatic biological changes that begin with the origin of new species.
  16. What are 3 causes of evolutionary change?
    • 1. Natural Selection
    • 2. Genetic Drift
    • 3. Gene Flow
  17. distinction in appearance between males and females of a species
    Sexual Dimorphism
  18. What is an advantage of being a heterozygote instead of a homozygote?
    Heterozygotes have greater reproductive success than homozygotes
  19. Can natural selection create perfect organisms?
    No
  20. a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same
    time
    Population
  21. How are insects and bacteria resistant to antibiotics or pesticides? What does this mean?
    • Spraying pesticides and taking antibiotics more than needed (or before you are
    • completely over your virus) can make the surviving insects and bacteria become
    • resistant and produce more resistant offspring. 
  22. when a new species is formed 
    Speciation
  23. What is the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation? 
    Allopatric speciation is when a species is separated by geography. Sympatric Speciation is when a species is located in the same area.
  24. More than one set of chromosomes
    Polyploidy
  25. a group of organisms whose members can breed and produce fertile offspring, but
    who do not produce fertile offspring with members of other groups
    Species
  26. Know the types of reproductive barriers and be able to identify examples of each
    Prezygotic (prevent mating or fertilization between species) and Postzygotic (prevent the development of fertile adults)
  27. defines a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the
    potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
    Biological species concept
  28. Can fusion occur in a hybrid zone?
    yes
  29. weak reproductive barriers between the two species, with considerable gene flow,
    reverses speciation and two species become one again
    Fusion
  30. many diverse species evolved from a common ancestor. Occur when a few organisms
    colonize new unexploited areas and after a mass extinction
    adaptive radiation
  31. Which element was probably not present in the early, primitive earth?
    oxygen
  32. what energy sources were present in early earth?
    volcanic activity, lightening, uv radiation
  33. What were the first organisms?
    prokaryotes
  34. What were the first organisms composed of? RNA, DNA, or protein?
    RNA
  35. What similarities do protobionts and modern-day cells share?
    Structural organization, simple reproduction, simple metabolism, simple homeostasis
  36. What does life require?
    Homeostasis and self-replication
  37. Prokaryotes are very important to eukaryotes. Why?
    • The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a community of prokaryotes, when small
    • prokaryotes capable of aerobic respiration or photosynthesis began living in
    • larger cells
  38. documents the main events in the history of life
    Fossil Record
  39. measures the decay of radioactive isotopes and can gauge the actual ages of fossils and
    the rocks in which they are found
    Radiometric Dating
  40. can date fossils up to 75,000 years old
    Carbon-14
  41. with a half life of 1.3 billion years, can be used to date volcanic rocks that are hundreds
    of millions of years old.
    Potassium-40
  42. slow,continuous movement of Earth’s crustal plates on the hot mantle 
    Continental Drift
  43. How did the Himalayas form?
    When the plates collide, they form mountains
  44. The hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents were joined
    Pangaea
  45. Over the last 600 million years, how many mass extinction events have occurred?
    Five; in which 50% or more of the Earth’s species went extinct
  46. (96% of shallow water marine species died because of extreme volcanism in Siberia
    releasing CO2, warmed global climate, slowed mixing of ocean water, and reduced
    oxygen availability in the ocean)
    Permian extinction
  47. (50% of marine species and many terrestrial lineages went extinct 65 million years
    ago, likely because of a large asteroid that struck the earth, blocking light
    and disrupting the global climate)
    Cretaceous extinction
  48. a group of organisms forms new species, whose adaptations allow them to fill new
    habitats or roles in their communities
    adaptive radiation
  49. retaining juvenile traits into adulthood
    Paedomorphic
  50. the gradual adaptation of existing structures to new functions
    Exaptation
  51. evolutionary history of a species or a group of species
    Phylogeny
  52. organisms not closely related evolve similar traits 
    Convergent evolution
  53. What are two examples of horizontal gene transfer?
    • 1. Gene transfer between a mitochondrial ancestor and the ancestor of eukaryotes
    • 2. Gene transfer between a chloroplast ancestor and the ancestor of green plants

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