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1) What are the correct and incorrect postures for breathing?
Correct: Good alignment. Incorrect: Collapsed Chest (Slouched Position) and Shoulders forced back (Military Salute).
What is the diaphragm and what moves the diaphragm when you breathe?
A muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The abdominal and intercostal muscles assist in the movement of the Diaphragm.
What is the role of breathing in vocalization?
Controlled breathing gives the signer the most control of their tone.
How does breathing work with regards to pressure gradients?
A Pressure Gradient is a physical quantity that describes which direction and at what rate the pressure changes the most rapidly around a particular location. When the volume of the lungs is small, the there is full pressure. When we inhale, the volume of our lungs expands and more air is absorbed to maintain that level of pressure within the lungs.
What is Phonation?
...is responsible for the fundamental pitch and its associated basic overtones of the vocal sound.
What is Myoelastic Theory for Phonation?
Air is expelled from the lungs and windpipe.
Closed vocal cords resist the airflow and pressure builds up.
The Vocal cords open to relieve the pressure and close immediately.
- This quick opening and closing of the vocal
- cords cause the sound.
What is the purpose of the Larynx?
...is where a singer controls the pitch of phonation. It contains the vocal cords.
What is a vocal register?
...are series of vocal tones that have a similar tone quality because they have similar vibratory patterns and are made using the same muscular positions.
How many registers does speaking use vs. singing?
Three for males and Four for females.
What is blending? Why should a singer be able to do it?
Definition: A term used to describe a method used by singers to blur changes in timbre caused by switching registers in order to make it seem like they are going between registers seamlessly.
A singer should be able to do this so that their voice won’t crack which they attempt to switch from one registry to another.
What are the resonators in the Vocal Tract and what role do they play in vocal timbre?
Larynx, Pharynx, Mouth, Nasal Cavity, and Hard & Soft palate.
What is Articulation?
…refers to the manner in which the tongue, lips, jaw and other speech organs are involved in making a sound intelligible.
What is Diction?
…refers to a singer’s vocabulary, speech patterns, colloquialism and pronunciation.
How many phonetic vowels in American English?
Explain a diphthong and tripthong.
Dipthong: is a compound vowel that is a combination of 2 vowels.
Tripthong: is a combination of 3 vowels.
What is a consonant, and how many types of consonants are there? Explain.
Definition: are the main articulators. And there are two types of consonants in the English language.
What are the 3 ways to start a sound and explain them.
Glottal Attack - is created by the explosive release from under a closed glottis. A glottal attack sounds like a percussive pulse. Happens very often on words that start with vowels.
Aspirate Attack - create breathy tones. Uses a lot of breath and can make it difficult to understand the singer.
Clean Attack - a clean, balanced attack with no harshness or breathiness.
What are some of the main targets for a vocal lesson.
To extend vocal range.
To develop consistent tone quality and vocal production.
To develop vocal agility.
To develop an even vibrato.
A term used for unaccompanied singing.
Legato vs. Staccato
- – Can mean two things:
The ability to smoothly transition between voices for example at the break point between chest and head voice. This is not easy to do and singers spend a lot of time learning how to smoothly change at break points in their voice.
Legato can also mean singing notes in a rhythmically connected fashion. Can be thought of as running one syllable into another. Legato essentially avoids glottal starts.
- - A staccato phrase contains a series of short notes separated by silences.