Path Test 4: Infectious Diseases

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BrookeNH10
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199603
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Path Test 4: Infectious Diseases
Updated:
2013-02-11 00:07:19
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Path Test Infectious Diseases
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Path Test 4 Infectious Diseases
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  1. Enters from outside the body
    Exogenous
  2. Already present as part of normal flora
    Endogenous
  3. Two dissimilar organisms living in close association
    Symbiosis
  4. Living on or within, deriving benefit w/o injuring or providing benefit to another organism
    Commensalism
  5. Both organisms gain benefit, often cannot survive separately
    Mutualism
  6. One derives benefit while the other is harmed in some way
    Parasitism
  7. Parasite that lives outside the body
    Ectoparasite
  8. Parasite that lives within the body
    Endoparasite
  9. Parasite whose entire life cycle occurs in one host
    Monogenic
  10. Parasite that requires more than one host
    Digenetic
  11. One organism derives no benefit while the other is harmed
    Amensalism
  12. Both organisms are harmed
    Synnecrosis
  13. Lack of interaction
    Neutralism
  14. Main host or one in which sexual cycle takes place
    Definitive host
  15. Temporary host for larval stages, asexual repro, development
    Intermediate host
  16. Intermediate host actively involved in transmission
    Vector
  17. Transport host; other than intermediates host that carries parasites to definitive host
    Paratenic host
  18. Alternate definitive host; maintains infxn
    Reservoir host
  19. Alternative definitive host that for some reason is rarely infected, often the life cycle cannot be completed
    Accidental host
  20. GI tract bug:  causes malabsorption by numbers/ blocks epithelial surface
    Giardia
  21. GI tract bug:  Penetrates into mucosa and sucks blood
    Hookworm
  22. GI tract bug:  Absorbs large quantities of Vit. B12
    D. latum
  23. GU tract infxn is typically accomplished by
    extension (periurethral bacteria, hematogenous spread, sexual contact)
  24. Properties of potential pathogen that allow it to establish within the host, avoid the host defenses and cause disease
    Virulence Factor
  25. Name 2 adherence factors
    • Pilus
    • Adhesins
  26. Proteins that promote tighter binding of bacteria to host.  Name 2 examples
    • Adhesins
    • M protein= inhibits macrophages ingestion
    • F protein= binds fibronectin
  27. Name 3 toxins
    • Exotoxin
    • Neurotoxin
    • Membrane-disrupting toxin (usually phospholipase)
    • Superantigen
  28. Typically heat labile, secreted into local environement: often A-B type (A has enzyme activity; often disrupts cAMP levels)
    Exotoxin
  29. Inhibits release of neurotransmitters
    Neurotoxin
  30. Non-specifically bind to a conservatie region of T lymphocyte receptor
    Superantigen
  31. Name 5 diseases with superantigens
    • Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
    • RA
    • MS
    • Graves
    • SIDS
  32. Endotoxin
    LPS
  33. Toxic component of LPS
    Lipid A
  34. Chelates iron, competes with transferrin
    Siderophores
  35. Inhibits C3b binding, inhibition of IFN activity, etc.
    Sialic acid residues
  36. Elevated WBC:
    Left-shift?
    No shift?
    Eosinophilia?
    • Left-shift:  bacterial
    • No shift: viral
    • Eosinophilia: parasites
  37. Common tests on dip stick for neutrophils
    Leukocyte esterase (urine test)
  38. Not normally present in urine, but is produced by a # of bacterial species
    Nitrite
  39. Meningitis most common bacteria:
    Neonates?
    Children?
    Adults?
    Elderly?
    Post-neurosurgery?
    • Neonates:  Grp. B Strep, E. coli
    • Children:  H. influenza, S. pneumo, Neisseria
    • Adults:  S. pneumo, Neisseria
    • Elderly:  Bacillus, S. pneumo, HI, Listeria
    • Post-neurosurgery:  Staph, Pseudomonas
  40. Name 2 stains done to check for CSF bacteria
    • Gram Stain
    • India Ink
  41. Gram stain of male urethal discharge is senesitive/ specific for this, but NOT for females
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  42. Obtained from a chancroid, needs special media for culture
    H. ducreyi
  43. 3 types of Urinary tract specimens
    • 1) Clean catch
    • 2)  Suprapubic:  Infants where clean catch was not succesful; suspect anaerobes
    • 3)  Catheter:  Shouldn't be used for culture sample
  44. Only thing you refrigerate (and only if it takes more than 2 hours from collection to culture)
    Urine sample
  45. Feces sample bacteria:  Sensitive to drop in pH secondary to anaerobic metabolism, needs specific media
    Shigella
  46. Feces sample bacteria:  Doesn't survive in buffered glycerol
    Campylobacter
  47. Catalase Test
    Add H2O2 to culture, if catalase is present, it will bubble
  48. Certain organisms produce diffusible extracellular protein (CAMP factor) that works with beta-lysin of S. aureus to cause hemolysis
    Camp test
  49. Performed to see if certain bacteria will use citrate as their sole carbon source and ammonium as sole nitrogen source
    Citrate utilization test
  50. Allows transport of citrate into bacteria
    Citrase permease
  51. Defense mechanism to clot surrounding plasma and resist phagocytosis.  This enzyme is produced by Staph.
    • Coagulase
    • (Coagulase Test)
  52. Measures ability of microorganism to degrade tryptophan into indole, ammonia, and pyruvic acid.
    Indole test
  53. Degradation of tryptophan is detected through addition of
    Kovack's reagent (reacts w/ indole and makes a red color)
  54. Used to ID strains of strep pneumonia; has detergent-like action and causes selective lysis of pneumococci
    Optochin test (S. pneumonia is optochin sensitive so zone of inhibition will develop around the disk where the bacteria have lysed)
  55. Determines if organism possesses cytochrome c
    Oxidase test

    • Absence of cytochrome c= clear
    • Presence of cytochrome c= purple

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