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What is the importance of Preproduction?
The most important thing you need to do for vocal preproduction is to get in contact with your singer. A good game plan for a vocal session is essential to a successful vocal session. Being on the same page as your singer can go a long way to establish a great relationship with the singer, and can help make your session a stress-free and easy experience.
What should we do as Preproduction for a vocal session?
a. Get the lyrics and arrangement of the song before the session.
b. Make Sure You Are Recording The Song In The Right Key
c. Talk to singer about what their goals are with the session.
d. Figure out what you, as the producer, would like to accomplish with the song.
Why should we figure out the proper key for a singer, and when should the key be determined?
You do not want to spend a lot of money arranging a song only to find that the singer cannot sing the high notes in that key.
Why should we type the lyrics out, when should it be done and what are some format ideas?
Why?: To be able to find your way around the song without asking too many questions.
When?: Before the vocal session.
What?: Format Ideas: Verse 1, Chorus 1, etc. Put line numbers for each line.
What are the benefits of knowing the song before we go in the studio?
Song familiarity will go a long way to making you look professional because you can navigate the session quicker than if you were learning the song on the spot.
What is a Reference?
References are songs or singers that your artist likes. Some format ideas are: Sections and Line numbers.
What are some things you should have done in your Pro Tools session before the vocal date?
A. Setup Tempo Map
B. Place necessary Markers
C. Setup signal routing
Why is setting your tempo map important?
W/o a good Tempo Map you cannot fly vocal sections. This makes you appear slow.
What is the Grid on ProTools?
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How do you set up subgroup masters for instrument sets in your session? What advantages does laying out your session this way offer?
Subgroups allow you to easily turn down instrument types quickly while tracking. If the singer wants less drums, rather than turning down each drum individually, you can turn down the subgroup master.
Know frequency response dropoff and the resonant frequency range for dynamic, ribbon and condenser microphones.
Dynamic: Dropoff at 10kHz and a Resonant Frequency b/w 1kHz-4kHz.
Ribbon: High Frequency Response reaches approx. 14kHZ. Flat Frequency Response.
Condenser: Resonant Frequency of 8kHz to 12kHz. Drop Frequency: Decrease in Frequency Response occurs over time.
Does every condenser Microphone sound the same? Why?
No, due to the change in frequency response over time. Which causes for a different sound.
What polar pattern do we generally use on vocal sessions? When would we use omni?
When would we use Omni?: If there is too much Proximity effect. Omni mics will not have a low-end proximity boost.
Why do we want to control room tone when recording vocals? What advantages does this offer?
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What kind of problems can a fast first reflection give you?
Phase issues and Comb Filtering issues.
What are the recommended distances your singer should be from condenser and dynamic mics?
Condenser: 6 inches to 2 feet.
Dynamic: 2 inches to 1 foot.
Three Positions of Mics in relation to singers mouth? What does each offer?
Directly in Front of Singer: Even sound w/ good tonal balance.
3-4 inches Above the Mouth: Eliminate many lip smacks and remove nasality from the singer.
4-6 inches Below the Mouth: Add body to a thin singer, but can make them sound more nasal. Lip smacks, etc. are also more noticeable.
What is the purpose of a Pop Filter?
To prevent plosives like "p" and "b" can pop the mic capsule. The audible pop is caused by the diaphragm hitting the end of it's travel range.
What type of microphone is a Neumann U87, AKG C12, Sony C800 G, Shure SM7?
- Neumann U87 = Condenser
- AKG C12 = Tube Condenser
- Sony C800 G = Tube Condenser
- Shure SM7 = Dynamic