Italian42B: Issues covered by Midterm Exam

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dante01
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199616
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Italian42B: Issues covered by Midterm Exam
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2013-02-11 01:11:11
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Midterm
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  1. Census Statistics
    -2000: 16 mill (6%) of US Italian ethnicity

    -2010: 308 total, but no longer ask for Italian descent
  2. French Revolution
    • -signified break of regime of hierarchy (peasant v. ruling class) 
    • -ideas of democratic self rule, political equality reach It via Napoleon
  3. American Revolution
    • -heralded in Europe
    • -prompted activist movements, mass migration to US
  4. Ellis Island
    • -main entry point to US
    • -immigrants stopped and medically/mentally examined
  5. Mutual Aid Societies
    -formed by ethnic groups to help each other (before welfare, pensions)
  6. Unions
    • -workers coalitions formed against the wishes of industrial owners
    • -advocated for safer working conditions
  7. Black Hand Gangs
    • Italian-American gangs (violence, extortion, intimidation)
    • -weaved into negative Italian stereotype
  8. Anarchists
    • -left wing anti-state activists,
    • -often committed terrorist acts (assassinated several gov't officials)
  9. Socialists
    -left activists for strong central gov't that owns the means of production and distributes resources equally throughout society
  10. Vernacular/folk culture
    -lower class, everyday culture generated by the general population (food, art, dialects, etc.)
  11. elite culture
    -upper class, refined/cultivated culture
  12. popular culture
    • -emerges in late 19th, 20th cent w/ emergence of middle class- free time, disposable income (b/c of labor laws)
    • -movies, music, radio, TV
  13. Westward expansion
    • -(19th century)
    • -America is destined to conquer the West, adventurous American spirit
    • -Italian immigrants were a part of this history making
  14. American Civil War
    • -battle between South and North
    • -Italians fought for the northern army
  15. Abolition of slavery
    • -opened up jobs for Italians especially
    • -on southern plantations, which lost African-Americans workers to the northern cities
  16. industrialization
    • -shift from agricultural to industrial focus in US
    • -formation of factories (esp. textiles)
  17. Cosmopolitanism
    -notion that people should identify themselves as citizens of the world, not of a particular country
  18. Fascism
    -form of nationalism by which the government aims to make the nation culturally homogenous, but also help poorer classes
  19. Italian Language Newspapers
    • -initially begun to bring news of the homeland, then used propagated political ideologies
    • -ex. El voce del poppolo
  20. Pick-and-shovel men
  21. Sunnyside Plantation Arkansas
    -cotton plantation whose owner (Corbin) recruited Italian immigrants to work, attracted them with promises of land, but exploited them brutally
  22. Global circuits
    paths/systems/frameworks/movements of people, ideas, values, commodities, etc.
  23. Situated Locations
  24. Risorgimento
    • -battle for unification of Italian city states
    • -incited by southern Italian peasants (1870) struggling against centuries of foreign rule and economic oppression
  25. Red Shirt Soldiers
    -Risorgimento soldiers commanded by Garibaldi
  26. Picciotti/red sash bandits
    sistema gunmen
  27. Napolean Wars
    • -(1796-1815)
    • -Napolean's various campaigns in the Italian peninsula 
    • -created instability
    • -returned power to local nobility
    • -stopped reforms
  28. Piedmont's Italian Constitution
    -1861
  29. Northern Italy vs Southern Italy
    • 1. North
    • -associated with more elite Italian culture, taller more anglo
    • -looking, better educated, generally wealthier
    • 2. South 
    • -associated more with vernacular Italian culture, most of the peasant class, illiterate, insular, short of stature and darker skinned
  30. Southern Italian insurgent rebels
  31. Hegemony
    • -indirect form of geopolitical dominance by which one territory/group subordinates another
    •  -often perpetuated and institutionalized (education, gov't, media, religion)
    • -dominant group socializes subaltern to accept, reinforce system
  32. Dominant actors
    -those who hold the hegemonic power in a social relationship, subjugate the subaltern actors
  33. Subaltern (non-dominant) actors
    those without hegemonic power and influence in a social relationship, subjugated by dominant actors
  34. Nativism (American scene)
    • -social/political policies privileging and protecting "native" born Americans
    • -Ex. WASPs
    • -hostility to immigrants
  35. Internal migration/transmigration
    • -movement of people within the borders of a nation
    • -ex. movement of Italian imms from American east --> west
  36. Assimilation
    losing original aspects of a native culture to adopt the norms of a new place
  37. Acculturation
    blending of different cultures, two way exchange of culture
  38. Discrimination
    -prejudiced treatment of someone based on their actual/perceived membership in a certain group/category
  39. National Origins (Johnson-Reed) Immigration Act of 1924
    -created quotas for immigrants to the united states from each country to 2% of # of those ppl already living in the US
  40. Documentation
  41. Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis
    • America's history based on:
    • 1. colonization of the west
    • 2. existence of "free" land
    • 3. continuous recession
    • 4. frontier provides safety valve for eastern rebels
    • 5. protects nation against uprisings of impoverished, malcontents
  42. Remittances
    money made by immigrants in the foreign country then sent back to the home country to support family/friends there
  43. Benedict Anderson's definition of Nation/Imagined Communities
    • "imagined political community
    • - imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign"
  44. Push/Pull factors
    • 1. Push Factors
    • -circumstances that influence one to leave a place
    • 2. Pull Factors
    • -circumstances that influence one to go to a place
  45. Chain migration
    -process by which immigrants from a certain place follow others from that place to a particular city/neighborhood in the new land
  46. Sistema del potere
    -"system of power" Western Sicilian hierarchical organized crime system, doing out justice that the governtt fails to
  47. oral culture
    • -histories/myths/fables/etc.
    • -passed down through the generations by word of mouth instead of through writing
  48. written documentation
  49. Ethnic stereotypes
    • -simplified and misleading representations of ethnic groups
    • -typical characteristics associated with a group
  50. Anarchist Bombing of Wall Street
    • -Gallianists labor activists looking to overthrow capitalism
    • -(early 1900s)

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