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Microbiology: A human perspective - Chapter 8
What are the 3 mechanisms of bacteria use to adapt to their environments?
What is a genetic change?
A change that alters an organisms genotype?
What are the observable characteristics of an organism?
What is a wild-type organism?
Properties are similiar to the organsim first isolated in nature.
What is a spontaneous mutation?
An inhertiable spontaneous change in the base sequence of DNA
What is a base substitution?
Incorrect base is incorporated in DNA
What is a point mutation?
One base pair is changed
What is a frame shift mutation?
When the codons shift, and the reading frame is moved.
What are the mechanisms of Gene Transfer?
What is transformation?
The transfer of naked DNA from one bacterium to another
What is transduction?
DNA transfer via a virus
What is conjugation?
What is a pilus structure?
Long protien structure that comes out of the cell
What is a plasmid?
A circular strand of DNA that lies outside the chromosme