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What are the 3 mechanisms of bacteria use to adapt to their environments?
- Natural Selection
- Gene Transfer
What is a genetic change?
A change that alters an organisms genotype?
What are the observable characteristics of an organism?
What is a wild-type organism?
Properties are similiar to the organsim first isolated in nature.
What is a spontaneous mutation?
An inhertiable spontaneous change in the base sequence of DNA
What is a base substitution?
Incorrect base is incorporated in DNA
What is a point mutation?
One base pair is changed
What is a frame shift mutation?
When the codons shift, and the reading frame is moved.
What are the mechanisms of Gene Transfer?
- DNA-mediated transformation
What is transformation?
The transfer of naked DNA from one bacterium to another
What is transduction?
DNA transfer via a virus
What is conjugation?
What is a pilus structure?
- Long protien structure that comes out of the cell
- The "penis"
What is a plasmid?
A circular strand of DNA that lies outside the chromosme
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