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  1. Nitrogen-Containing Base
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
  2. 1st Model of DNA
    Watson and Crick
  3. Deoxyribosome
    • A five carbon sugar. 
    • Primes 1-5
    • DNA
  4. Ribose
  5. Deoxyribonucleotide
    • Phosphate, Deoxyribose, Base
    • Adening
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
  6. DNA is a
    Double Helix
  7. Diffences with RNA
    • Is single strand
    • Sugar of RNA is Ribose
    • RNA lack Thymine, it has Uracil.
  8. Deoxyribose
    • One molecule of Oxygen
    • 2 Molecules of Oxygen
  9. The process of replication is controlled dy enzymes called
    DNA polymerases
  10. Semi-Conservative
    Each of the praent strands remains intact.
  11. Roseline Franklin
    X-Ray picture that shows that DNA was a spiral molecule
  12. DNA replication
    DNA makes an exact complete copy
  13. Johann Friedrich Miescher
    • Nuclein  (DNA)
    • Nucleic Acid = Because it was discover that it was acidic
  14. FredGriffith
    - Develop a vaccine against pneumonia (Straptus cockas)
  15. There were 2 different strains
    • R (they survived)  - R was harmless  
    • S (is pathogenic and is able to reproduce) they died S makes them sick…
  16. Transformation:
    • - Bacteria can do this.  They have the ability to absorb into their DNA.
    • - Living Bacteria can absorb DNA that is in the environment into theirs and make it their own.
  17. Protein: 20 building blocks
    - Amino Acids  (20 Amino Acids)
  18. DNA has 4 building blocks called:
    • Nucleotides
    • Chromosomes are 50% protein and 50% DNA
  19. OswaldAvery (1944):
    S- Extracted the generic material.  Chromotome material  Protein and DNA.He added an enzyme that destroy protein call Protease. Idea: If I destroy the protein it will not make the mice sick. Same experiment and he added DNase.  Enzyme that destroys DNA.
  20. Nucleotide is made of 3 parts
    • Sugar (5-Carbon-Deoxyribonucleic Acid) DNA
    • Phosphate
    • Nitrogen Base
    • - Adening
    • - Guanine
    • - Thymine
    • - Cytosine
  21. Which ones pair up?
    AT   and   GC
  22. RNA
    AU  and   GC
  23. Watson and Crick
    • Biologist
    • Physicist
    • Created a model of how DNA was constructed.
  24. Experiment
    • R = Lived
    • S = Died
    • Killed-S = Lived
    • R and Killed-S = Died
  25. DNA is a spiral shape
    Double Hilix
  26. DNA building blocks
  27. Nucleodtides are made of 3 parts
    • Sugars
    • Phosphate
    • Nitrogen Base
  28. Nitrogen Bases occur in pairs
    AT   and   CG
  29. DNA replication
    DNA makes a copy of itself
  30. Semi-Conservative Replication
    Conserve half of the original molecule
  31. DNA Polymerase
    It adds nucleotides onto the Deoxyribosome
  32. DNA Ligase
    Seals gaps in double-stranded DNA

    Connect the Okazaki fragments together.
  33. Gene
    Has instructions to make one protein
  34. Transcription
    Copy of one gene of DNA resulting in molecule of messenger RNA

    Instructions will make that protein (Polypeptide)

    Only one strand is copy in the process.
  35. Translation:
    Making of that Polypeptide
  36. 3 RNA's
    rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)

    tRNA (Transfer RNA)

    mRNA (Messenger RNA)
  37. Ribosomal RNA
    It is half of what Ribosome are made up.

    2-Part Ribosome

    1/2 Protein  and   1/2 rRNA
  38. Transfer RNA
    Picks up Amino Acids and carry to ribosomes

    20 tRNA's, one per protein (Amino Acid)
  39. Differences in RNA / DNA
    DNA double Strand / RNA Single Strand

    DNA Deoxyribose  /  RNA  Ribose

    DNA 4 Base ATGC / RNA AUGC
  40. Replication
    Makes a coplet copy of itself
  41. Transcription
    Length of one gene (mRNA)

    The process of creating RNA with a DNA template.
  42. RNA uses Ribose and DNA uses Deoxyribose
    Ribose 2 Oxygen

    Deoxyribose missing Oxygen
  43. DNA Template or Master Strand
    The side that gets copied
  44. Which direction
    3 - 5 direction
  45. Promoter
    On Switch or Start Switch
  46. RNA Polymerase
    Enzyme that will copy the DNA and make the messenger RNA (Transcription)

    Binds to the promoter site of DNA strand

    Ends at the termination site of the DNA.
  47. Helicase Enzyme
    Break the Hydrogen Bonds  (Templates)

    5 - 3 Prime

    Adds Neucleotides
  48. Exon and Intron
    Exon is good

    Intron is garbage.
  49. AUG
    Start Codon
  50. Translation has 3 parts


  51. Initiation
    mRNA leaves nucleous

    AUG and tRNA moves and attaches to 1st mRNA
  52. Elongation
    2nd tRNA connect to mRNA

    1st tRNA leaves

    and so on for a full peptied
  53. Termination
    Completed Peptide

    Separates from the mRNA

    Ribosome will separate and will be re-used

    150 Amino acids
  54. Mutations
    Base-Pair substitution
  55. Replication
    DNA complete copy
  56. Transcription
    mRNA creation
  57. Translation
    Used to translate the message.
  58. Spliceosomes
    Cuts the introns out of the mRNA
  59. Polysome
    If more than one Ribosome attaches to the mRNA.

    A strand of mRNA being worked by several Ribosomes
  60. Base-Pair substitution
    Type of mutation in which a single base-pair changes.  Affect which Amino acid you get...

    Instead of CCU (Proline) you get UCU (Serine)
  61. Deletion
    Mutation in which one or more base pairs are lost.

    Leads to shifting.  Now with less letters.

    Base deletion leads to frame shifts.
  62. Insertion
    Mutation in which one or more base pairs become inserted into DNA.  Adding a letter so it shifts the Amino acids.

    Call frame shift.
  63. Mutations

    Chemicals can cause mutations

    Radiation can cause mutation

  64. Mutagen
    An agent that causes a mutation
  65. Carcinagens
  66. Chromatin
    Stretched out
  67. Chromosome
  68. 2 halves are called
  69. Centromere
    Place where the chromatids are connected
  70. Sister Chromatids
    They are identical cells.
  71. 2 process of how cells divide

  72. Mitosis
    Nuclear division mechanism that maintains the chhromosome number.  Basis of body growth and tissue repair in multi-celled eukaryotes; also aseual reproduction in some plants animals, fungi and protists
  73. Mitosis
    Nuclear division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number.  Basis of body growth and tissue repair

    It takes place on the body cells which are called somatic cells.  The result of mitosis is the daughter cells having the same number of DNA (Chromosomes)

    Mitosis: It is for growth.  (grow or replacement)

    Mitosis is to replace your cells.  When they are worn out.

    If you get a cut or injury, the cells are healed by the process of mitosis.
  74. Mitosis
    Daughter cells will have a complete complement of DNA.
  75. Meiosis
    They take place on (cells that are going to produce sex cells) germ cellsa.      

    They get rise to sex cells.  That is the only place where meiosis occurs.

    They produce either sperm or egg

    46 Chromosomes on all of your body cells

    23 cells for sex cells

    Meiosis produces (23) gametes (sex cells) with half as many cells as the mother cell.  
  76. Meiosis purpose
    Produces gametes  (sex cells)
  77. Cell Cycle
    G1 (Growth) – Growth, duplication of cell organelles.  Biochemical activity.

    S – Synthesis of DNA.  This is where DNA REPLICATES.

    G2 – Cells getting ready for cell division (G-Getting ready).

    Mitosis – Division of the nucleus ONLY.  Not the cell.

    Cytokinesis – Division of the cytoplasm.
  78. G1
    G1 (Growth) – Growth, duplication of cell organelles.  Biochemical activity.
  79. S
    Synthesis of DNA.  This is where DNA REPLICATES.
  80. G2
    G2 – Cells getting ready for cell division (G-Getting ready).
  81. Mitosis
    Mitosis– Division of the nucleus ONLY.  Not the cell
  82. Cytokinesis
    Division of the cytoplasm.
  83. Mitosis occurs in what type of cells
    Sematic (body cells)
  84. Mitosis purpose
    Fort growth, worn out cells, hurt cells
  85. Mitosis Bacteria
    Asexual reproduction / Primitive animals / plants, organismx
  86. Asexual reproduction
    The offspring is a clone of the parent
  87. Mitosis
    Somatic Cells
  88. Meoisis
Card Set:
2013-02-11 15:52:38

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