Geology Unit 2 Part 2

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Geology Unit 2 Part 2
2013-02-11 10:18:30
GOM Gulf Mexico minerals rocks basin Earth

Part 2 of Unit 2
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  1. Describe the potential reserves of oil and gas found beneath the GOM
    Obtaining right to explore and drill and produce GOM oil and gas can involve investments of more than a billion dollars.
  2. The state of Texas has unique offshore rights. How far offshore does Texas own mineral rights?
    Texas public schools "own" the offshore oil and gas rights, out to 3 marine leagues (10.35) miles fromt he Texas shoreline.
  3. Which Texas education fund receives money from this offshore oil and gas prduction?
    The Texas Permanent School Fund.
  4. Describe a natural source of oil pollution on Texas beaches.
    Natural oil seep are where oil and gas escapes into the GOM water from natural cracks. the oil often floats to shorelines and can pollute beaches.
  5. What is "gas hydrate"?
    Ice-like minerals of natural gas that form in deep, cold seawater from crack in the seafloor.
  6. Where can gas hydrate be found: seeps at shallow sea depths or seeps at sea depths?
    Natural gas seeps in the deeper par of the GOM will not rise to the surface.
  7. How much gas hydrate reserves coul posssibly be found in seawater basins?
    The amount of gas hydrate surrounding natural oil and gas leaks along the sea floor could exceed all known reserves of oil, gas, and coal by a wide margin (depth is problem).
  8. The largest GOM oil and gass platforms have been either constructed or finished near ___.
  9. Describe the mehod used to drill for oil and gas depostis, from offshore drilling platforms.
    Directional drilling of dozens of drill holes from one platform is used to exploit oil and gas deposits in the GOM.
  10. Explain the development and demise of the hypoxic zone that lies in front of the Mississippi River or Brazos River.
    It's a seasonal (summer) overgroth of algae that falls to the bottom and depletes the oxygen there, killing amlost all surrounded life. During the winter the hypoxic zone disappears. It actualy affecs only the bottom 20% of the water column or depth.
  11. Describe the Gulf Stream (and to where does it travel).
    A stron, warm sufrace current which originates in the Caribbean-GOM and flows out of the GOM past Fla. and northeast across the Atlantic.
  12. Name the four priciple Texas barrier islands.
    Galveston Island, Matagorda Island, St. Joseph Island, and Mustang-Padre Island
  13. What is the name of the famous natural coral reefs off the coast of Texas?
    Texas Flower Gardens National Marine Sanctuary.
  14. On what geologic feature are these Texas natural reefs located?
    It's 100 miles off the Texas-Louisisana coast, west of Galveston.
  15. What are artificial reefs and why are they so importants to the GOM fishing industry?
    Drill platforms that povide a resting site for plants and animals on a featureless oceanic shelf (otherwise offshore currents would sweep the sea plants and sea life away).
  16. What is a important factor of Marpol Treaty Annex 5?
    A complete ban on the dumping of all forms of plastic into the sea.
  17. Have a general awareness on these factors.
    • Impact of the GOM upon Texas:
    • 1.)Porvides large reserves of oil and gas
    • 2.)Texas offshore oil and gas royalties help fund Texas Public Schools.
    • 3.)the resting site for Chicxulub is within GOM waters.
    • 4.)The Gulf Stream direcetly affects our climate and that of parts of Europe.
    • 5.) It is the site for barrier islands and reefs.
    • 6.)Provide sites for fishing, water sports, beaches, transportation, etc.
    • 7.)Breeding grounds for hurricanes and tornadoes.