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Who is Wilhelm Wundt and what did he do?
Established the first psychology lab. His was the first theory in psychology.
The study of behavior and mental processes with the purpose of prediction
What are the earliest beginnings of psychology?
The ancient Greek philosophers, then psychology died in the Middle Ages
What theory was developed out of Wundt's lab?
Structuralism: The structure of thought- the way we process information has a pattern
Who developed Functionalism? Explain this theory:
William James. Functionalism: Thinking leads to action. Behavior is the most important thing because you can observe behavior, but not thoughts
Who is considered the Father of Behaviorism?
Explain the major perspectives in psychology:
- -Biopsychological: The biology of psychology
- -Cognitive: Faulty thinking patterns, a pattern formed by reward- generally negative
- -Humanistic/Existential: Identifying and achieving your potential
- -Behaviorism/Learning: Measurable and observable behavior, no free will, experiences cause behavior
- -Psychodynamic: Developed by Freud, based on the unconscious/hidden personality
- -Sociocultural: Society shapes us
- -Evolutionary: How people evolve psychologically over time
Describe a case study:
Focuses on only one subject in immense detail in order to formulate a hypothesis
Explain the difference between independent and dependent variables:
- Independent variable: The thing you're researching, the variable that's manipulated
- Dependent variable: The aspect that should change based upon the independent variable
What is the difference between a population and a sample, parameter and a statistic
- -The population is the entire group of people or animals that a researcher is interested in while a sample is a randomly selected portion of subjects from the population
- -Parameter is the result from the entire population while a statistic is the result from the sample
Explain double-blind experiments:
Neither the subjects or the researchers know who belongs to which group in the experiment
Describe how an experiment is conducted:
- -Form a hypothesis
- -Choose an independent variable
- -Find the dependent variable
- -Gather experimental group
- -Gather control group
- -Choose blind or double-blind study
- -Figure out if the research applies to the whole population
Describe positive and negative correlation:
- -Positive: Both variables moving the same direction
- -Negative: Both variables moving in opposite directions
Explain a hypothesis:
An educated guess
Ensuring the research applies to the whole population
What is myelin and what does it do?
Fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse
Explain the function of the axon of the neuron:
To send electrical charges (messages) from the cell body to the terminal buttons of the neuron
What are the nodes of Ranvier and what do they do?
Any of the gaps in the myelin nerve fiber in which the axon is exposed. They push the charge down the axon
What is the synapse?
The microscopic, fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell
What is the all-or-none principle?
The neurons will fire at full strength, or not at all
What is the nucleus of a cell?
The center of the cell where the DNA to form chromosomes is stored
What are neurotransmitters and what do they do?
The chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell
Explain the electrical and chemical processes of neural firing:
An electrical charge is sent through the neuron starting at the cell body, down the axon, and into the terminal buttons. The charge then gives the message to the neurotransmitters while weakening the "wall" of the synaptic knob so the neurotransmitters can be sent to the next cell
What are the vesicles?
They hold the neurotransmitters until they are released from the synaptic knob
List and describe the major functions of the neurotransmitters:
- -Serotonin: Psychological problems, emotions
- -Dopamine: Muscle movement and memory
- -Acetylcholine: muscle movement and memory
- -Endorphins: Pain response
- -Noradremaline: Arousal
Describe what comprises the central and peripheral nervous systems:
All nerves and neurons in the brain and spinal cord and that run through the body itself
Explain the function of the somatic nervous system:
Part of the peripheral nervous system consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the central nervous system and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body
List and describe the functions of the lobes of the brain:
- -Frontal: Higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech
- -Parietal: Touch, taste, and temperature sensations
- -Occipital: Vision
- -Temporal: Sound, speech, language
What does the limbic system do?
A group of several structures in the brain which are involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation
Explain the function of the corpus callosum and why a neurosurgeon would sever it:
It connects and sends messages between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Severing it would reduce the amount of seizures a person with epilepsy would endure
Explain the functions of Broca's and Wernicke's areas:
- -Broca's area: devoted to the production of speech
- -Wernicke's area: Understanding the meaning of words
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Motivational behaviors such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex
What does the cerebellum control?
It coordinates involuntary, rapid, and fine motor movement
Explain the different functions of each hemisphere of the brain:
- -Left: Language and logic
- -Right: Spatial and visual
The study of the transmission of genetic information
How many chromosomes do humans have?
23 pairs- 46 total
What are the sex chromosomes?
What is nature's default gender?
Why are male fetuses and babies more fragile than females?
Because of the female chromosome Y
How are males and females genetically different in relation to their mother?
Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome which connects them to their mother while females have to X chromosomes
Explain monozygotic and dizygotic twins and how they are used in research:
- Monozygotic twins come from one egg and one sperm while dizygotic twins come from two eggs and two sperm
- Monozygotic twins are more useful in research because their DNA is the closest match there can be in two different people