study of inheritance, study of DNA and it’s effects on the characteristics of organisms
known as “classical” or “Mendalion” genetics
-how characteristics transmitted from one generation to the next -2 individuals who are the parents and they pass characteristics onto the offspring
- DNA is being used to produce a strand of RNA
RNA is then going out to the cytoplasm of this eukaryotic cell-because is has a nucleus
Red strip of RNA is being read by orange ribosomes as ribsomes leave the RNA are producing proteins which is called
DNA making more DNA-controlled mating has been a very important part of understanding molecular genetics
frequency of characteristics and or alleles within a group of interbreeding organisms-discontinuous variation is when you can count phenotypes (different variation)
-how commom is this gene-traits that are controlled by one or two genes
-ex: cystic fibrosis and retina blastoma- phenotypes are discreet
frequency of characteristics that are controlled by more than two genes = multi-genetic trait
-get a bell shaped curve, multiple genes
-ex: hair color, height (shade of
hair color or variation in height) -
-“Father of Transmission Genetics”
Watson & Crick
“Fathers of Molecular Genetics”
-first described the structure of DNA as a double helix
complete collection of DNA within a cell or the nucleus
study of complete collection of DNA within a cell or the nucleus
-Catalog of genes and where they are
study of all the proteins produced by a cell or by an organelle
-how in some cells the gene is active and makes a lot of protein and in another cell the gene is inactive and it does not make that protein 2 cells have the same genome
but if they have been exposed to different environments during developmental
process they will have different protions
What are some of the techniques used to obtain genetic information?
How do we obtain information to build in our knowledge to understanding
study of complete collection of DNA within a cell or the nucleus Catalog of genes and where they are genetics, understanding DNA?
What are some of the organisms that have been used in the past?
-Pea plants by Mendalin
-Mold or yeast- Eukaryote development- more similar to own mechanisms
-Rabbits and mice- Physiological studies because they are mammals
-Sea Allegans- transparent easy to study
-E-coli bacteria- Prokaryote (no cell membrane)- short life span, lots of offspring, easy to grow
Characteristics of a good model organism:
-Short life span
-Easy to care for (small)
-Large # of offspring
-Variations in genetic makeup
Plants have been used in genetics:
What we can do with these model organisms is that we can have controlled mating?
-True breeding tall plant
-True breeding short plant
Followed down through the next several generations
Controlled mating has always been a very important part of understanding what kind of genetics and then ultimately understanding molecular genetics?
the study of the structure of the cell
-Many early geneticists were cytologists who spent many hours looking at various cells under a microscope
-You learned the phases of mitosis
-They are described by what you
see under the microscope
How are other biologies linked to Genetics?
-One camp of scientists looking at cells under microscope
-Another camp of scientists doing controlled mating
-Another camp of scientists doing biochemical stuff on model organisms
When you start to combine all of those and they start to make a complete understandable story
-Now we have a nice body of
knowledge that we can call Genetics
-Was harvested from various
points Mating, Cytology, Biochemistry
Beadle and Tatum
2 researchers that were the Fathers of Biochemical Genetics
looking at a metabolic pathway
- you take one of those processes like glycolysis and you analyze
all the intermediates; if you see a build up then you say there is an enzyme in
the very next step must not be functioning because we get to that point and we
can’t go on. So it must be that enzyme
that is not functioning correctly. Let’s
go check it’s gene let’s see if we can find out what gene controls that enzyme.
taking the DNA itself & determining its sequence, or where it is cut with specific restriction enzymes, etc. often referred to as biotechnology.
-What led to the formation of
-they were able to take a human gene; actually the gene that codes for the protein insulin and insert that gene into the genome of e-coli cells. Then we can tell the e-coli cells to make insulin for us.
What is it called when we can take the DNA from one species and insert it into
another species to produce proteins that we want?
DNA is made up of what?
4 different nucleotides A,C,G,T
Human genome has 3 billion base pairs
National Center for Biotechnology Information
problem with site is there is so much information
portion of NCBI database has scientific peer reviewed articles such as Cystic Fibrosis
Online Mendalian Inheritance in Man
Fun, less complicated
summary of disease
what gene is involved
links w/ detailed info
Ex: Diabetes Type II, Cystic Fibrosis, Sickle cell anemia
-Repository where any genetic sequence that has been published, discovered by a scientist is now stored, public access