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4 types of Anthropology
physical/biological, archaeological, (socio) cultural, linguistic
A holistic approach with small scale analysis focused on culture by participant observation
- Descriptive account of a particular community, society, or culture.
- Oldschool: chapter breakdown into descriptions of sub topics like economy, religion.
- Modern: focused on a particular problem and how this relates to other cultures. Subtopics can be woven into this theme. Less isolating.
Not as common anymore. Develops theory by combing multiple ethnographies
- Scientific and systematic data gathering
- Studies humans to find regularities
- Good for creating policies
- Focus on human thought and action
- Shed light on how others view world
- Empathetic understanding
- Reduces "us" vs. "them"
- All civilized>Tower of Babel>Some civilized and others degenerated
- Religion based
- All go from primitive>civilized
- Observed differences are due to different experiences
- Science based
Idea originates in one place and spreads to other cultures
- Single-source diffusion from Egypt
- Ethnocentric bias
Multiple powerful and smart societies all influencing each other
- Discarded theory
- All societies develop in same way toward Europe's height
Animals adapt to environment and pass on these traits
Some are born better equipped and pass on these traits
- Used evolution to study societies
- Assumed psychic unity of mankind
- All go through same stages
- Current primitive people are living fossils
Lewis Henry Morgan
Edward Burnett Tylor
Justifies conquest of lesser societies
- 1st anthropologist professor in US
- Importance of field work
- Used empirical evidence vs. observation
- Shot down heliocentricity and scientific racism
Misconceptions of Anthropology
Only primitive people in remote areas, purely anecdotal, working alone, adventurous
- "Methodological Statement"
- Important to go in situ
- Don't use pidgin english
- More transparency of data gathering
- Ethnographers Magic:become part of landscape, get empathetic understanding, develop a systematic sketch
- "Pacific Argonauts"
- Crazy shell islanders