SUR 105 - Test 3
Card Set Information
SUR 105 - Test 3
peripheral vascular surgeries
peripheral vascular surgery includes?
procedures of arteries and veins lying outside immediate area of heart or brain
decrease in or absence of blood to a localized area, usually related to vascular obstruction
function of peripheral vascular system
to carry blood cell components and and nutrients to all parts of body and to remove waste products of metabolism
organs of peripheral vascular system
3 layers of blood vessels
tunica externa (adventitia)
blood vessel layer that is composed of connective tissue, which protects the vessel from injury and provides structural strength
blood vessel layer that is composed of inner layers of smooth muscle (under control of ANS) bounded by connective tissue
blood vessel layer that secretes substances that cause vasodilation or constriction, as well as substances that prevent platelet aggregation in the vessel
carry oxygenated blood away from heart to the rest of the body
arteries (except pulmonary arteries)
thick, highly elastic, contain mainly smooth muscle
function of arterioles
provide vascular resistance, regulating flow of blood into organs and tissues
resting phase of the heart
what does vascular dilation do to body temp?
lowers body temp because it exposes the blood to surface cooling provided by evaporation of sweat from the skin
what occurs during shock and when body's core temp is subnormal?
microscopic vessels that function as transition and exchange mechanism for oxygen and other substances between the vessel walls and tissue cells
what are capillaries composed of?
endothelial cells and have no muscle fibers
one cell thick and allow selected substances to diffuse through capillary membrane into tissue
carry blood back to the heart from the peripheral tissues
walls of veins
thin, allowing them to expand
why are vascular procedures performed?
to treat arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, and thromboembolic diseases
why is timing of reconstruction and grafting important?
to minimize the risk of ischemia
2 pathways in which circulatory system is divided
what does pulmonary system do?
carries blood from heart to lungs for oxygenation
provide primary pumping action for the heart
force exerted on the arterial wall by the pumping action of the heart
higher pressure - occurs during contraction of ventricles
lower pressure - occurs during relaxation phase of cardiac cycle
complex hormonal regulation of arterial pressure, influenced by fluid volume and other factors
what is viscosity measured by?
amount of fluid in blood
largest artery in the body
where does aorta terminate?
at the pelvic bifurcation
3 major arteries that arise from the top of the aortic arch
left common carotid artery
left subclavian artery
largest vein in the body
how does vena cava communicate with heart?
through right atrium
which veins converge to form portal vein?
superior mesenteric and splenic veins
how much blood can the liver store?
approximately 450 mL
lymphatic system composed of?
regional lymph nodes
to what does lymph contribute?
formation of plasma
occlusion of lymphatic duct and thoracic duct can result in?
lymph nodes composed of?
lymphatic tissue that collects and filters fluid
pulse volume recorder used to measure the arterial pulse waveform during systole
how many BP cuffs are used during arterial plethysmography?
3 are placed on the leg and inflated to 65 mmHg
what does doppler scanning do?
intensifies sounds made by blood flowing through a vessel
radiographic imaging of the artery
used in both peripheral and coronary surgery to map the lumen of a vessel
what are vascular clamps designed to do?
to prevent trauma to blood vessels
what is used to maintain sterile field instead of sponges?
used to burrow a channel through connective tissue to make space for a tubular vascular graft
vascular suture sizes
3-0 to 11-0
vascular suture materials
used to replace a blood vessel or to patch a vessel
what are synthetic grafts made of?
most common method of removing thrombi
Fogarty-type embolectomy catheter
what type of syringe is used to fill balloon of embolectomy catheter?
tuberculin (1 mL or less)
tubular mesh implant that fits against the walls of the artery
what do stents do?
provide physical barrier between atherosclerotic plaque and vessel lumen
hold vessel open so blood can flow freely
what are stents made of?
device used to retract a vessel during surgery - can also occlude blood vessel by acting as a tourniquet
what are vessel loops made of?
thin length of Silastic material
drugs that prevent blood from clotting
drugs that encourage clotting
during vascular surgery, what is used to prevent coagulation in the area of the operative vessels?
heparinized saline solution (1:100)
what drug may be administered just before arterectomy?
heparin is reversed with?
under coagulation, what can IV administration of thrombin cause?
removal of atherosclerotic plaque from inside of an artery
rubbery substance that adheres to the tunica intima causing stenosis or occlusion
injection of contrast medium into a selected artery and its branches to determine exact location of strictures, occlusion or malformation
used in conjunction with angioplasty to allow surgeon to see the position of stricture and to place catheter in correct position
incision in artery
obstructive arterial disease causing stiffness and loss of elasticity of artery wall
insertion of arterial catheter or stent into an artery to establish patency and normal blood flow
severe pain related to obstructed arterial flow
metal, umbrella-shaped filter inserted into inferior vena cava to prevent emboli from entering pulmonary system
vena cava filter
occur when one or more thrombi move from venous system into pulmonary vascular system
what is vena cava filter made of?
2 techniques used to create vascular access for renal hemodialysis
when is hemodialysis necessary for survival
when kidneys' filtering ability drops below 5%
procedure in which blood is shunted outside the body for filtering and cleansing
direct anastomosis between artery and vein
goal of thrombectomy
to remove a stationary clot in a blood vessel, restoring circulation and prevents emboli
stationary clot in arterial or venous system
thrombus that breaks away from vessel wall
surgical removal of atherosclerotic plaque from carotid artery
what arteries are clamped (in order) in a carotid endarterectomy?
internal carotid artery
common carotid artery
external carotid artery
in what order are arteries unclamped in carotid endarterectomy?
external carotid artery
internal carotid artery
common carotid artery
condition in which a section of the abdominal aorta becomes thin and bulges because of atherosclerotic plaque and progressive weakening of aortic wall
abdominal aortic aneurysm
most common causes of abdominal aortic aneurysm
degeneration of muscular layer of vessel
goal of AAA
to implant graft extending from aorta to both iliac arteries
aneurysm in which blood seeps between layers of vessel, causing it to tear and split
graft is implanted between the aorta and femoral arteries to bypass the iliac arteries to treat aortoiliac occlusive disease
prep area for aortofemoral bypass
from axillary line to midthighs
procedure which creates circulation between femoral arteries and axillary artery
implantation of prosthetic graft that connects femoral artery on the affected side to the opposite femoral artery
why is femorofemoral bypass performed?
to bypass unilateral atherosclerotic disease in iliac artery
what kind of anastomosis is used in femorofemoral bypass?
surgical alternative to use of a synthetic graft to bypass diseased femoral artery in which saphenous vein is not removed but left in anatomical position - uses saphenous vein as shunt
in situ saphenous femoropopliteal bypass
why is in situ saphenous femoropopliteal bypass performed?
to produce vascular continuity with an autograft
what arteries are involved in in situ saphenous femoropopliteal bypass?
femoral and popliteal arteries
synthetic graft or autograft implanted between femoral and popliteal arteries
procedure in which saphenous vein is removed to provide autograft for peripheral or coronary artery bypass
saphenous vein graft
goal of saphenous vein graft
to remove vein yet retain its structural and physiological soundness
why is greater saphenous vein used more successfully for bypass?
its connective tissue layer thickens with increased pressure
strong and able to withstand increased arterial pressure
what does surgical treatment of varicose veins involve?
removal of dilated and tortuous veins and their tributaries to prevent symptoms and improve cosmetic appearance
ballooning of an artery as a result of weakening of arterial wall
dilation of artery using endovascular techniques
most common form of arteriosclerosis - causes plaque to form on inner surface of artery
Y-shape of an artery or graft
type of ultrasonography that amplifies sounds that pass through tissue and produces visual image of blood flow
Doppler duplex ultrasonography
diagnostic tool that measures electrical activity of the brain
term referring to pressure, flow, and resistance in the cardiovascular system
blockage in artery that leads to ischemia and tissue death
term meaning "in the natural position or normal place, without disturbing or invading surrounding tissues"
diagnostic tool in which transducer is introduced into an artery and ultrasound is used to translate physical characteristics of lumen into visible image
decrease in or absence of blood to localized area, usually related to vascular obstruction
inside of hollow structure
term that literally means "through the skin" - in surgery, device introduced through puncture site instead of making incision
pooling of blood in veins caused by inactivity or disease
length of mesh tape used to loop around blood vessel for retraction
thinning and enlargement of veins as result of stasis