Psychology Ch. 3
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What process is where senses pick up sensory Stimuli and send it to the brain?
The process through which sensory info is organized and interpreted by the brain.
Amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time.
What is the difference threshold?
The smallest increase or decrease that produces a difference in sensation 50% of the time.
The smallest change in sensation that a person is able to detect half the time is:
Just Noticable Difference (JND)
What is Webster's Law?
JND depends on a proportion of change rather than a fixed amount.
What are sensory receptors?
Cells in a sense organ that detect and respond to a sensory stimuli and convert it to a neural impulse.
Do our eyes actually see?
No, the brain converts info received into an image through the eyes from the sensory receptors.
The process where sensory receptors convert stimulation into a neural impulse
When sensory receptors grow accustomed to constant, unchanging levels of stimuli such as a smoker not smelling the smoke.
What is the most studied sense?
the narrow band of electromagnetic waves visible to the eye.
What are the outer parts of the eye?
Cornea, Pupil, Iris, Lens
What are the inner parts of the eye?
Retina, Rods, Cones, fovea
What is the protective layer that covers the eye and bends light inward through the pupil?
Small opening in the center of the eye
Colored portion of the eye that dialates and contracts
disc shaped structure behind iris that changes shape as it focuses on objects at varying distances.
The flattening and bulging action of the lens as it focuses images on the retina
Light receptors that respond to low levels of light.
Enable humans to see color and fine detail in adequate light
What is the fovea?
Small area at center of retina that provides clearest and sharpest vision
which part of the brain processes visual info.
Primary Visual Cortex
What are feature detectors?
neurons that respond only to specific visual patterns.
What are the three parts to color vision?
- Hue - specific color
- Saturation - purity of color
- Brightness - intensity
What is the theory of Trichromatic Vision?
- Three basic colors combine to form all colors.
- - Blue, Green, Red
What is the Opponent Process Theory?
Three kinds of cells respond by increasing or decreasing their rate of firing when different colors are present.
What types of medium are required for sound?
Liquid, solid, or gas
What is a number of cycles completed in a second which determines the pitch of a sound and is measured in Hz(hertz)?
What is Amplitude?
How is it measured?
- Loudness of a sound.
What is Timbre?
The distinctive quality of a sound that distinguishes it from another sound of the same pitch and loudness. Ex. tumpet and flute.
What is audition?
The process of hearing
What is the function of the middle ear?
It contains the ossicles and connects the ear drum to the oval window and amplifies sound waves.
What is inside the inner ear?
- Cochlea - fluid filled snail shaped bony chamber which contains the basilar membrane and hair cells.
- Hair cells - receptors for hearing
What is place theory?
Each pitch is determined by the area on the cochlea that vibrates the most.
What is the Frequency theory?
Hair cells vibrate the same number of times per second as the sounds that reach them
each increase of 10 decibels makes a sound how many times louder?
10, normal conversation is 10,000 times louder than a whisper.
What is the sense of smell's scientific name?
What are the olfactory epithelium?
Two1 inch square patches of tissue at tje top of each nasal cavity which contain 10 million neurons
What is smell linked to through the hippocampus?
What are pheromones?
Chemical excreted by animals and humans that can have a powerful effect on behavior
What is the scientific name for Taste?
What are the 5 basic tastes?
What are taste buds?
Structures in many of the tongues papillae composed of 60-100 receptor cells
Touch's scientific name is
What is the two point threshold?
how far apart two touch points must be before that are felt as two separate touches.
What is the gate control theory?
An area of the spinal cord acts as a gate either blocking or transmitting pain messages to the brain.
In gate control theory, what do slow nerve fibers carry?
Fast nerve fibers?
- Slow ones carry pain messages
- Fast carry other messages which can block the gate.
What three factors is the perception of pain influenced by?
- Endorphins - body's natural pain killer.
What two things do kinesthetic senses tell us?
- 1. Position of body parts in relation to each other
- 2. the movments of the entire body or its parts
What do vestibular senses tell us?
Detects movement and provides info about the body's orientation in space.
What are the Semicircular canals?
three fluid filled canals in the inner ear that sense the rotation of the head.
If you were blindfolded and in an airplane goin 100 mph. would your body feel like it is moving? Why?
No, because your vestibular organs would not signal the brain that you are moving.
What does Gestalt roughly translate to?
Whole form, pattern, or configuration that a person perceives.
What are the five Gestalt principles?
- 1. Figure Ground
- 2. Similarity
- 3. Proximity
- 4. Continuity
- 5. Closure
Relating to gestalt principles, what is figure ground
One object(figure) seems to stand out from the background(ground).
Relating to gestalt principles, what is similarity?
Objects with similar characteristics are perceived as units.
Relating to gestalt principles, what is Proximity?
Objects that are close together are seen as units.
Relating to gestalt principles, what is continuity?
objects that appear to for a pattern a seen as units.
Relating to gestalt principles, what is Closure?
figures with missing parts are perceived as whole figures.
What are the three properties maintained in perceptual constancy?
Depth perception is the...
ability to perceive the visual world in three dimensions and to judge distances accurately.
Depth cues that depend on both eyes working together are
binocular depth cues
What are the 7 monocular depth cues?
- Linear perspective
- relative size
- Texture Gradient
- Atmospheric perspective
- Shadow or shading
- Motion parallax
What is real motion?
Perceptions of motion tied to movements of real objects through space.
What is apparent motion?
perceptions of motion that seem to be psychologically constructed in response to various kinds of stimuli.
A line of stationary lights that turn off and on in a sequence given the appearance of motion is an example of what?
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