Patho Quiz 6- part 1

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Patho Quiz 6- part 1
2013-02-11 13:44:39
Patho Quiz

Patho quiz 6
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  1. zygote
    Involves the uniting of a sperm and ovum to form
  2. translocation
    fragments exchange places with sequences on nonhomologous chromosomes 
  3. mosaicism 
    • when nondisjunction, duplication, deletion, or translocation occur in the first or second cell division after fertilization 
    • results in an individual with cells of differing chromosomal makeup
  4. nonpenetrance
    when an abnormal gene fails to result in an abnormal trait
  5. variable expression
    abnormal trait expressed differently in individuals with an identical genotype for the alleles responsible for the trait
  6. paternal imprinting
    silences certain genes that are derived from the father so that only the maternal allele is expressed
  7. epigenetic phenomena
    modification of the DNA by methylation or addition of protein groups to certain portions of the gene
  8. Embryonic development
    occurs in the first 8 weeks after fertilization 
  9. fetal period
    spans the time from the 8th week after fertilization to birth
  10. congenital
    present at birth, but not necessarily genetic in orign
  11. gestational age
    • time since the mother's last period
    • makes the embryo 2 weeks early that it is and the pregnancy lasts 40 weeks
  12. perinatal period
    period from two weeks before birth to four weeks after birth
  13. neonatal period
    time of birth to four weeks after birth
  14. Infancy
    one month to one year of age
  15. developmental abnormality
    refers to disease that affect normal maturation
  16. monogenetic
    • encompass the classic genetic disease in which a single abnormal gene is responsible 
    • can be traced through the family tree
  17. polygenetic
    • complex gene defects involve more than one abnormal gene
    • sometimes environmental factors in their expression
  18. chromosomal disease
    defined by microscopically visible structural changes in chromosomes
  19. familial disease
    diseases in which several family members have the same genetically or chromosomally based disease
  20. Inprinted
    modified by alteration of molecules other than nucleic acids that get attached to the gene
  21. Teratogens
    Toxoplasma, Other, Rubella, Cytomegaloviris, Herpes simplex virus
  22. chorioamnionitis
    placental membrane becomes infected, usually by bacteria
  23. prematurity age range
    births that occur 3 weeks or more prior to term
  24. Five major causes of death in infants born in the US
    • congenital and chromosomal abnormalities
    • prematurity and low birth weight
    • SIDS
    • complications of maternal disease
    • diseases of the placenta, cord, and membranes