blood vessels anatomy and physiology along with diseases associated with this unit
Name the 3 layers of the walls of all blood vessels
1. Tunica Externa
2. Tunica Media
3. Tunica Interna
What is the main function of the Tunica Interna?
to reduce friction between the vessel walls and blood
what is the function of the Tunica Media?
to control vasoconstriction and vasodilation of the vessel.
what is the function of the Tunica Externa?
to protect, reinforce, and anchor the vessel to surrounding structures.
What are the 3 different kinds of capillaries?
what is the function of the continuous capillaries?
they allow passages of fluids and small solutes. (these are the most common)
what is the function of the fenestrated capillaries and where they are found?
they are permeable to fluids and solutes and are found in glands
what are the functions of sinusoidal capillaries and where are they found?
they are leaky capillaries that allow large molecules like RED BLOOD CELLS to pass through. they are found in the bone marrow and the spleen.
what are capillary beds?
microcirculatory networks that have a vascular shunt and true capillaries. these are the exchange vessels.
what percentage of vessels are capillary beds?
why is the endothelium folded?
because when the vessels contract, they need extra surface so it doesnt tear.
what are some differences between the lumen of the artery and the lumen of the vein?
the lumen of the artery is smaller
the lumen of the vein has a thinner wall
why does the lumen of the artery smaller in diameter than the lumen of the vein?
the lumen of the artery has to be smaller in diameter because it has to have higher pressure than the lumen of the vein
what is the name of the wall layer in the lumen of the artery that is responsible for the lumen to be smaller in diameter?
the Tunica Media
what is cystic fibrosis?
an hereditary disorder that affects the exocrine glands. The abnormal transport of chloride and sodium cause thick mucous secretion.
what is emphysema?
a condition that occurs when the air sacks in the lungs are damaged.
what is hodgkin's lymphoma?
a type of lymphoma in which cancer originates in the form of white blood cells.
what is non-hodgkin's disease?
a diverse group of blood cancers that contain any specific type of lymphoma except for hodgkin's lymphoma.
what is acute lymphoblastic leukemia?
sudden or onset leukemia characterized by a proliferation of immature lymphoblasts like cells in bone marrow. this leukemia causes normal cells to be crowded out in the bone marrow so the leukemia cells can spread through.
what is SCID?
a genetic disorder that affects the T-cells of the adaptive immune system are impaired due to a defect in one of several possible genes. they are extremely vulnerable to other diseases.
what is a Macrophage and what is its role in the blood vessel?
A macrophage is a specific type of cell that "eats things" that don't belong... their role is to consume lipids in the blood vessels.
what is a foam cell? and what layer of the tunica does it bed itself in?
a foam cell is a changed macrophage cell and it embeds itself with in the tunica media
what is the term for an abnormally hard artery?
what is the term for random calcium deposits?
why is elasticity so important in blood vessels?
to accomodate the spikes from blood flow
what important factor can cause coagulation of hemostasis?
the foam cells that migrate and move down to block an artery.
what is the term for an immobilized clot?
what is the term for a mobile clot?
name some differences between a muscular artery and an elastic artery....
1. a muscular artery is less elastic
2. the elastic arteries are closer to the heart
3. the muscular arteries move down to the arteriole
true or false: the diameter of a capillary bed is equivalent to that of a red blood cell?
name a distinguishing feature of the arteriole.
they do not have a tunica EXTERNA
name a distinguishing fact or feature about the continuous capillaries.
they only contain endothelium
fill in the blank
"muscular artery -> _________ -> continuous capilary