chapter 11

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chapter 11
2013-02-11 21:09:10
ap psych

human development
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  1. an infants clinging response to a touch on their palm
    grasping reflex
  2. development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint
  3. indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
    developmental norms
  4. average children walk and talk around ___ months?
  5. the progression of muscular coordination required for physcial activities
    motor development
  6. the head to foot direction of motor development
    cephalocaudal trend
  7. the center outward direction of motor development
    children gain control of their torso before extremities
    proximodistal trend
  8. an infant turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere near their mouth
    rooting reflex
  9. _____ factors sometimes vary the median times for those milestones
  10. infants greatly benefit from?
    • being touched by their parents
    • looking at human faces and patterns
  11. what did the visual cliff experiment determine?
    whether infants had depth perception
  12. transitions in patterns of thinking, reasoning, remembering and problem solving
    cognitive development
  13. he asserted that children progress in thinking through assimilation and accomodation
    jean piaget
  14. interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them
  15. changing exisiting mental structures to explain new experiences
  16. a child's realization that an object exists even when he cannot see or touch it
    object permanence
  17. an infant's understanding of objects depends on
    their present sensations
  18. a child's intellectual ability to picture something in his mind
    representational thought
  19. a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed
  20. the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem and neglect other important features
  21. the inability to envision reversing an action
  22. a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
    egocentric thinking
  23. the belief that all things are living
  24. described the changes that occur in children's understanding in 4 stages of cognitive development
  25. infants use schemas that mainly involve their both and sensations
  26. child begins to use mental images or symbols to understand things
  27. child uses logical schemas and masters conservation but not abstract ideas
    concrete operations
  28. child can solve abstract problems and has logical reasoning
    formal operations
  29. piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development
    • sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concrete operations
    • formal operations
  30. characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
  31. characterized by shyness, timidity and wariness of unfamiliar people, objects  and events
    inhibited temperament
  32. they are less restrained and less afraid of unfamiliar people, objects and events
    uninhibited temperament
  33. refers to the close, emotional bonds of affections that develop between infants and their caregivers
  34. emotional distress in infants when separated from people they've formed an attachment with
    seperation anxiety
  35. she founded three patterns of attachment in infants
    mary ainsworth
  36. babies are comfortable with their mother
    secure attachment
  37. baby is anxious when mother is near
    anxious-ambivalent attachment
  38. seek little contact with their mother
    avoidant attachment
  39. there is a modest correlation between infant ______ and _____
    • temperament
    • attachment security
  40. most evidence shows that daycare is...
    not harmful to children's attachment relationships
  41. inherited tendencies of newborn animals when encountering new stimuli in their environment
  42. he wanted to learn about attachment to mothers in monkeys
    harry harlow
  43. parents are total bosses and dont have to explain their actions or decisions
  44. in this type of family, children take part in decisions affecting their lives
  45. family where kids have the final say and parents often give in to their demands
  46. parents who seem uncommited to their roles and distant from their kids
  47. studies suggest that kids from democratic/authoritative families are more..
    confident of their own values and goals than their peers
  48. he proposed 8 different stages of psychosocial development
    erik erikson
  49. each stage of eriksons stages involves?
    a struggle between two opposing tendencies you experience
  50. the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture you are raised in
  51. he believed that all children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges
  52. what did freud believe?
    children go through 5 different stages of psychosexual development
  53. a failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
  54. freud's psychosexual development stages?
    • oral stage
    • anal stage
    • phallic stage
    • latency stage
    • genital stage
  55. oral stage?
    erotic pleasures are obtained through the mouth with breastfeeding or thumbsucking
  56. anal stage?
    the infant's pleasure seeking is centered on functions of elimination
  57. phallic stage?
    pleasure are obtained from their genitals
  58. latency stage?
    • ages 5-6
    • sexual desires are pushed into the background
  59. genital stage?
    • sexual desire are renewed and you seek relationships with others
    • age puberty through adulthood
  60. he studied stages of moral development using the Heinz story
    lawrence kohlberg
  61. he came up with 6 stages of moral development
  62. stage 1 of preconventional morality
    you are only concerned with avoiding punishment
  63. stage of preconventional morality
    you are concerned with gaining rewards
  64. stage 3 of conventional morality
    you want to gain approval or avoid disapproval
  65. stage 4 conventional morality
    you are concerned with law and order
  66. stage 5 postconventional morality
    you are concerned with whether a law is fair or just
  67. stage 6 postconventional morality
    you are concerned with ethical principals and the good of society as a whole
  68. who referred to adolescence of as a time or storm and stress?
    stanley hall
  69. believed that storm and stress was a by-product of an industrialized society
    margaret mead
  70. distinguished 4 attempts to achieve a sense of identity
    james marcia
  71. teens have no clear sense of identity and give it no serious thought
    identity diffusion
  72. 4 forms of identity by james marcia
    • identity diffusion
    • identity foreclosure
    • identity moratorium
    • identity achievement
  73. teens commit to decisions based on ideas of others, not their own choice
    identity foreclosure
  74. teensexplore identity issues but make no commitment
    identity moratorium
  75. teens explore identity issues and freelymake their own decisions
    identity achievement
  76. a set of behaviors organized around how a male or female should think or behave
    gender schema