biology Ch 5
Card Set Information
biology Ch 5
things to know.
the capacity to do work
the energy of motion.- light, heat, ect.
energy that is stored. ex: gas in my gas tank.
First law of Thermodynamics
Energy can not be created or destroyed.
Second law of Thermodynamics.
Energy tends to disperse spontaneously.
Measure of how much the energy of a system is dispersed.
What are the differences between Kinetic energy and potential energy?
Kinetic energy is in motion and potential energy is being stored.
Explain energy flow.
from the environment -> to producers ->consumers -> back to environment.
a molecule that enters a reaction
A molecule that remains at the end of a reaction.
Describes a reaction that requires a net input of free energy to proceed.(energy in) Store energy
Describes a reaction that ends with a net release of free energy. (releases energy)
Minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction.
The acceleration of a reaction by a molecule that is unchanged by participating in the reaction.
A molecule that is specifically acted upon by an enzyme.
Of an enzyme, pocket in which substrates bind and a reaction occurs.
Point during a reaction at which substrate bonds reach their breaking point and the reaction will run spontaneously.
The concept that substrate binding to an active site of an enzyme improves the fit between the two molecules.
What is the function of an enzyme?
It acts as a catalysis, it helps a reaction happen faster.
What are the mechanisams of an enzyme?
Helping substrates get together
Orienting substrates in positions that favor reaction.
Inducing a fit between enzyme and substrate
Shutting out water molecules.
Series of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells build, remodel or break down an organic molecule.
mechanism in which a change that results from some activity decreases or stops the activity.
Describes a region of an enzyme that can bind a regulatory molecule and is not the active site.
Oxidation- reduction reaction, in which one molecule accepts electrons( it becomes reduced) from another molecule( which becomes oxidized).
Electron transfer chain
Array of enzymes and other molecules that accept and give up electrons in sequence, thus releasing the energy of the electrons in usable increments.
is a small organic compound with an iron atom at its center.
A metal ion or a coenzyme that associates with an enzyme and is necessary for its function.
An organic molecule that is a cofactor.(they carry chemical groups,atoms,or electrons from one reaction to another in a metabolic pathway.
Substance that prevents oxidation of other molecules.
Transfer of a phosphate group from one molecule to another.
The nucleotide adenosine triphosphate.
Process by which cells regenerate ATP. ADP forms when ATP loses a phosphate group, then ATP forms again as ADP gains a phosphate group.
Molecule of a cell membrane as a two-denominational fluid of mixed composition.
fasten cells together in the plasma membrane of animal cells. A membrane protein.
Plasma membrane protein that identifies a cell as belonging to self (one's own body).
Plasma membrane protein that binds to a particular substance outside of the cell.
Protein that passively or actively assists specific ions or molecules across a membrane.
Spontaneous spreading of molecules or ions in a liquid or gas.
There are 5 factors that effect how quickly diffusion occurs:
Number of molecules or ions per unit volume.
Difference in concentration between adjoining regions of fluid.
Describes a fluid that has a low overall solute concentration relative to another fluid.
Describes a fluid that has a high overall solute concentration relative to another fluid.
Describes two fluids with equal solute concentration.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient.
Pressure that a fluid exerts against a wall, membrane, or other structure that contains it.
Amount of turgor that prevents osmosis into cytoplasm or other hypertonic fluid.
Energy-requiring mechanism in which a transport protein pumps a solute across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient.
Active transport protein; pumps calcium ions across a cell membrane against their concentration gradient.
Mechanism by which a concentration gradient drives the movement of a solute across a cell membrane through a transport protein. Requires no energy input.
process by which a cell takes in a small amount of extracellular fluid by the ballooning inward of its plasma membrane.
Process by which a cell expels a vesicle's contents to extracellular fluid.
"Cell eating"; an endocytic pathway by which a cell engulfes particles such as microbes or cell debris.
Endocytosis of bulk materials