Chapter 4

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Chapter 4
2013-02-11 18:26:28

chapter 4 chemistry
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  1. examples of electromagnetic radiation
    radio, microwave oven, remote control, cell phone, neon sign, and rainbow
  2. involve energy that travels as waves through space
    electromagnetic radiation
  3. highest point on the wave
    peak or crest
  4. distance from a peak in one wave to the peak in the next wave
    wave length
  5. number of waves that pass a certain point in one second
  6. distance in meters a wave travels in one second
    velocity of a wave
  7. velocity of radiation is given as
    meters per second
  8. travels at the speed of light in a vacuum
    electromagnetic radiation
  9. wavelengths of radiation are expressed in
    meters (m)
  10. frequencies are measured in
    cycles per second
  11. represents one wave per second
    hertz (Hz)
  12. arrangement of all the various forms of electromagnetic radiation in order of  decreasing wavelengths or increasing frequencies
    electromagnetic spectrum
  13. have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than radio waves
  14. responsible for the heat we feel from sunlight and the heat of infrared lamps used to warm food in restaurants
    infrared radiation (IR)
  15. with wave lengths from 700 to 400nm is the only light our eyes can detect
    visible light
  16. longest wavelength at 700 nm
    red light
  17.  wavelength of 600 nm
    orange light
  18. wavelength of 500 nm
    green light
  19. wavelength of 400 nm and is the shortest wavelength  of visible light
    violet light
  20. has shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than violet light of the visible range
    unltraviolet light (UV)
  21. can cause sunburn
    Ultraviolet light
  22. has shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light
    Xray and gamma rays
  23. has some of the highest frequencies
    Xray and gamma rays
  24. produced by radioactive atoms and in nuclear processes in the sun and stars
    gamma rays
  25. dangerous because they kill cells in the body and are used in treatments of tumors and cancers
    gamma ray
  26. when atoms of elemets are heated
    they produce light
  27. when the light emitted from heated elements is passed through a prism
    it does not produce a continuous spectrum
  28. consists of lines of different colors separted by dark areas
    stomic spectrum
  29. when white light from the sun or a light bulb is passed through a prism
    produces a continuous spectrum
  30. example of a contiunous spectrum
  31. having only certain wavelengths of light produced when an element is heated gives each element
    a unique atomic spectrum
  32. stream of small particles of energy
  33. the energy of a photon is related to
    frequency of the light emitted
  34. the energy of an electron can never
    be between any to specific energy levels
  35. in an atom, each electron has its
    own energy level
  36. energy level are assigned values called
    principal quantum numbers
  37. electrons in the lower energy levels
    are closer to the nucleus
  38. electrons in the higher energy levels are
    farther away from the nucleus
  39. An electron is raised to a higher energy level by?
    absorbing the amount of energy equal to the difference in energy levels
  40. when does an electron lose energy?
    when it falls to a lower energy level and emits electromagnetic radiation equal to the energy level difference
  41. if the electromagnetic radiation emitted has a wavelength in the visible range
    we see a color
  42. when an electron falls from higher energy levels to the first energy level
    Ultraviolet light can be produced
  43. when electrns fall from higher energy levels to the second level
    a series of colored lines of visible light can be produced
  44. when electrons fall from higher energy levels to the third level
    photaon in the infrared can be produced
  45. each energy level consists of one or more
  46. contains electron with identical energy
  47. sublevels are indentified by the letters
    s, p, d, f
  48. equal to the principle quantum number
    number of sublevles in an energy level
  49. withis each energy level the S sublevel has the
    lowest energy
  50. if there are additional sublevels after S then
    p has the lowest energy then d then f
  51. s sublevel
    has the lowest energy
  52. s sublevel holds
    1 or 2 electrons
  53. p sublevel holds
    6 electrons
  54. d sublevel holds
    10 electrons
  55. f sublevel hold a max of
    14 electrons
  56. a region in an atom where there is the highest probability of finding an electron
  57. represents the three dimensional regions in which electrons have the highest probability of being found
    shapes of orbitals
  58. states that an orbital can hold up to 2 electron but no more
    pauli exclusion principle
  59. in an s orbital electrons are most likely found
    in a region with a spherical shape
  60. s orbitals can hold
    1 or 2 electrons
  61. increase in the size of the s orbitals
    means higher energy levels
  62. p sublevel has
    3 p orbitals
  63. an s level has
    1 s orbital
  64. each of the 3 p orbitals has
    2 lobes
  65. each p orbital can hold up to
    2 electrons
  66. at highter energy levels  the shape of p orbitals
    stays the same but the volume increases
  67. d sublevel consits of
    5 d orbitals
  68. f sublevel has
    7 f orbitals