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The study of structure
Macroscopic anatomy is:
gross structures, visible to the naked eye.
Microscopic anatomy is:
small structures not visible to the naked eye.
*Includes Histology and Cytology.
Histology is the study of:
Cytology is the study of:
structural features of cell. or cellular anatomy
Physiology is the study of:
functions at system, organ, tissue, cellular or molecular levels.
It is the scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things.
REMEMBER: Function follows form
What are the levels of organization?
- Chemical (Atoms & molecules e.g:proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids)
(Smallest unit of life; Organelles (cellular structures with specific functions)
(Similar cells grouped together to perform a function; »4 major types: epithelial tissues; muscle tissues; connective tissue; nervous tissue)
(Two or more types of tissues working together to perform a specific function)
(= Organ System; Organs working together to perform an overall function)
(Made up of many organ systems)
What are the Characteristics of life?
- Organization: (cell membrane, organelles, skin)
- Metabolism: (chemical reactions)
- Responsiveness: (Recognize changes in environment and creates response)
- Growth: (increase in size)
- Development: (the changes an organism undergoes from fertilization until death)
- Reproduction: (cellular or organism)
What is Homeostasis?
•Existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.
What is Homeostatic imbalance?
•occurs when homeostatic mechanisms fail
What is Homeostatic Control?
•prevents extreme deviations by feedback mechanism
–accomplished primarily by nervous & endocrine systems
Feedback Mechanisms occurs because?
=body recognizes deviation and creates response
Negative Feedback occurs when?
•response counteracts deviation
•any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted until normal range is attained
•most body functions are controlled with negative feedback
What are the components of
•Receptor (sensor)-sends information to ->
•Control center - receives & analyzes input, and determines output; sends information along efferent pathway to --->
•Effector - produces output=response
• E.g., control of Blood Pressure
Positive Feedback is?
•NOT homeostatic response
•rare in healthy individuals
•response intensifies deviation until major event happens
Positive Feedback: Examples
•platelet plug formation & blood clotting
•release of milk during lactation
•contractions during labor (childbirth)
•action potential in neurons
•positive feedback can create a cycle that leads away from homeostasis and, in some cases, result in death
Harmful Positive Feedback dealing with extreme blood loss
•Extreme blood loss
- --> blood pressure decreases
- --> blood flow to heart decreases
- --> heart pumps less blood
- --> blood pressure decreases
- --> the heart stops pumping --> death
•A small family was traveling in its van and had a minor accident. The children in the back seats were wearing lap belts, but still sustained numerous bruises about the abdomen, and had some internal organ injuries.
•Why is this area more vulnerable to damage than others?
•The abdominal organs are the least protected in the body because they are not surrounded by a bony covering such as the ribs, pelvis, or cranium.
Body Fluids and Compartments
•Adult human body is at least:
–50% (females) water by weight
–60% (males) water by weight
•Low water content in adipose tissue --> more adipose tissue --> lower water content
Intracellular Fluid (ICF) is found where? How much % of total body weight?
•~ 40% of body weight
(~2/3 of total fluid)
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) is found where? How much % of total body weight?
•20% of body weight
(~1/3 of total fluid)
(between tissue cells)
(outside blood cells)
How are ICF and ECF different in composition?
•ICF - higher in potassium (K+), phosphate (HPO4=), protein
•ECF - higher in chloride (Cl-), sodium (Na+)
Major organs of the body:
Brain, Larynx, Trachea, Aortic Arch, Lung, Heart, Liver, Pancreas (behind stomach), Gallbladder, Kidney (behind intestine), Large intestine, Ureter (behind small intestine), Urinary bladder, Urethra, Spinal Cord, Carotid artery, Esophagus, Diaphragm, Spleen (behind stomach), Stomach, Kidney (behind stomach), small intestine.
Integumentary System provides and consists of?
Provides: protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, and helps produce vitamin D.
Consists: of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands.
Skeletal System provides and consists of?
Provides: protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat.
Consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments and joints.
Ex: Skull,clavicle, sternum, humerus, vertebral column, radius, ulna, femur, ribs, pelvis, tibia, and fibula.
Muscular System provides and consists of?
Provides: body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat.
Consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons.
Ex: Temporalis, pectoralis major, biceps brachii, rectus abdominis, sartorius, quadriceps femoris, gastrocnemius.
Lymphatic System does what and consists of?
Removes foreign substances from the blood an lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fats from the digestive tract.
Consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs.
Ex: Tonsils, Cervical lymph node, mammary plexus, thoracic duct, spleen, inguinal lymph node, thymus, axillary lymph node, lymphatic vessel.
Respiratory System does what and consists of?
Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulated blood pH.
Consists of the lungs and respiratory passages.
Ex: Nasal cavity, pharynx (throat), larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and nose.
Digestive System does what and consists of?
Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes.
Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs.
Ex: Salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, pharynx (throat), oral cavity (mouth), liver, gallbladder, appendix, rectum, anus.
Nervous System does what and consists of?
A major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiological processes, and intellectual functions.
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
Ex: Brain, spinal cord, nerve, cauda equina.
Endocrine System does what and consists of?
A major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions.
Consists of glands, such as the pituitary, that secrete hormones.
Ex: Pineal gland, parathroids (posterior part of thyroid), pancreas (islets), testes (male), hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenals, ovaries (female).
Cardiovascular System does what and consists of?
Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature.
Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
Ex: Carotid artery, jugular vein, heart, brachial artery, inferior vena cava, superior vena cava, pulmonary trunk, aorta, femoral artery and vein.
Urinary System does what and consists of?
Removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance.
Consists of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine.
Ex: Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
Female Reproductive System does what and consists of?
Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development' produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors.
Consists of the ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures.
Ex: Mammary gland (in breast), uterine tube, ovary, uterus, and vagina.
Male Reproductive System does what and consists of?
Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors.
Consists of the testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis.
Ex: Seminal vesicle, prostate gland, testis, penis, ductus deferens, epididymis.
Anatomical position: refers to a person standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
Supine: when laying face upward
Prone: when laying downward.
Right and left are retained as directional terms.
- Cephalic (synonymous with superior)=Toward the head
- Caudal (synonymous with superior)=Toward the tail
- *Used to describe directional movement on the trunk, but they are not used to describe directional movements on the limbs.
- Anterior=that which goes before
- Ventral= belly
- Posterior=that which follow
- *Used to refer to linear structues, such as the limbs.
- Medial=toward the midline
- Lateral=away from the midline
- Superficial=describes a structure close to the surface of the body.
- Deep=toward the interior of the body.
Body Parts and Regions
The central region
of the body consists of: head, neck
, and trunk.
can be divided into the thorax
(region between the thorax and pelvis), and pelvis
(the inferior end of the trunk associated with the hips).
The upper limb
is divided into the arm
, and hand
The lower limb
is divided into the thigh
, and foot
- The abdomen is subdivided superficially into quadrants by two imaginary line--one horizontal and one vertical--which intersect at the navel.
- *Quadrants formed: right-upper, left-upper, right-lower, left-lower.
- In addition to these quadrants, the abdomen is subdivided into regions by four imaginary lines- two horizontal and two vertical.
- *Create tic-tac-toe grid on abdomen, resulting in nine regions: epigastric, right and left hypochondriac, umbilical, right and left lumbar, hypogastric, and right and left iliac.
A plane divides, or sections, the body, making it possible to "look inside" and observe the body's structure.
- A Sagittal plane (means "the flight of an arrow") runs vertically through the body, separating it into right and left portions.
- *Refers to the way the body would be split by an arrow passing anteriorly to posteriorly.
A Median plane
is a sagittal plane that passes through the midline of the body, dividing it into right and left halves.
runs parallel to the ground, diving the body into superior and inferior portions.
runs vertically from right to left and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
The body contains many cavities. Some of these cavities, open to the outside of the body, and some do not.
The trunk contains three large cavities that do not open to the outside of the body: the thoracic, the abdominal, and the pelvic cavities.
The rib cage surrounds the thoracic cavity, and the muscular diaphragm separates it from the abdominal cavity. It is divided into right and left parts by a median partition called the mediastinum (middle wall). The mediastinum contains the heart, the thymus, the trachea, the esophagus, and other structures, such as blood vessels and nerves. The two lungs are located on each side of the mediastinum.
Abdominal muscles primarily enclose the abdominal cavity, which contains the stomach, the intestines, the liver, the spleen, the pancreas, and the kidneys.
Pelvic bones encase the small space known as the pelvic cavity, where the urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and the internal reproductive organs are housed.
*The abdominal and the pelvic cavities are not physically separated and sometimes are called the abdominopelvic cavity.
line the trunk cavities and cover the organs within these cavities.
- Imagine pushing your fist into an inflated balloon. You fist represents an organ; the inner balloon wall in contact with your fist represents the visceral (organ) serous membrane covering the organ; and the outer part of the balloon wall represents the parietal (wall) serous membrane. *The cavity, or space, between the visceral and parietal serous membranes is normally filled with a thin, lubricating film of serous fluid produced by the membranes. As organs rub against the body wall or against another organ, the combination of serous fluid and smooth serous membranes reduces friction.
The thoracic cavity
contains three serous membrane-lined cavities: a pericardial cavity and two pleural cavities. The pericardial
(around the heart) cavity
surrounds the heart. The visceral pericardium
covers the heart, which is contained within a connective tissue sac lined with the parietal fluid, is located between the visceral pericardium
and the parietal pericardium
Each lung is covered by visceral pleura
and surrounded by a pleural
(associated with the ribs) cavity.
Parietal pleura line the inner surface of the thoracic wall, the lateral surfaces of the mediastinum, and the superior surface of the diaphragm. The pleural cavity lies between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura and contains pleural fluid.
The abdominopelvic cavity
contains a serous membrane-line cavity called the peritoneal
(to stretch over) cavity.
Visceral peritoneum covers many of the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity. Parietal peritoneum lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity and the inferior surface of the diaphragm. The peritoneal cavity is located between the visceral peritoneum and the parietal peritoneum and contains peritoneal fluid.