G below middle C, to B above the staff (extended to G)
What are the open strings on the violin?
Low G, D, A, E
What are the sul G Characteristics of the G string?
It is full, rich, and rather dark in quality. From about D upward, its tone becomes curiously intense, as if charged with emotion
What are characteristics of the D string?
Less dark and full
What are characteristics of the A string?
What are characteristics of the E string?
Especially brilliant and penetrating
What is arco?
What is pizzicato?
To pick or pluck
What are the parts of the violin?
Point or tip
Wooden portion of bow
What is the fingerboard?
The part of the instrument on which the fingers stop the strings
What is the bridge?
A small piece of wood that keeps the strings raised and in place above the main body of the instrument
What is the frog?
The portion of the bow nearest the players bow hand
What is the point or tip?
The part of the bow opposite the frog
What is the wooden portion of the bow referred to as?
What is vibrato?
Normally used in playing stringed instruments and is produced by an oscillating motion of the hand on the fingerboard. Without a vibrato the tone is white and lacking in expressiveness and warmth although this very sound is occasionally used for a particular effect.
What are the five positions
First position on the D string is where the first finger is on E
First position on the A string is where the first finger is on B
Second position on the E string is where the first finger is on G
Third position on the G string is where the first finger is on C
What is a double, triple, and quadruple stop?
Where two, three, or four notes can be played at the same time provided that each note can be taken on a separate string and that the pitches involved can be fingered at once
What is divisi?
What is the range o n a viola?
An octave below middle c to about a 12th above it
What are the open strings on a viola?
C, G, D, A
What is the alto clef?
Where the middle C is the middle line
What is the range of the violoncello?
C below the Bass clef to treble clef C (extended to G above treble clef)
What are the open strings on the violoncello?
C, G, D, A
What are the clefs for the violoncello?
Bass clef, or the tenor clef where middle C is on the fourth line
What are the limitations of double stops on the violoncello?
Avoid 2nds and octaves unless one of the notes is open
What is the range of the double bass?
The Range is E below the bass clef to low treble clef A (extended to D) sounding an octave lower than written
What are the open strings on the double bass?
E, A, D, G sounding an octave lower than written
What does bowing mean?
The actual motion of the bow over the strings, or it may mean the indications in a string part that tell the player how the music is to be bowed.
What does bowing include?
Down-bow marks or up-bow marks
Dots or accent marks over the notes to suggest the type of bowing
Spiccato, arco, and pizzicato
What are factors that influence bowing?
The general effect desired
Technical considerations as the need for a down-bow or an up-bow at certain places
How are dynamics varied by bowing?
The amount of bow used up varies in a general way with the volume of tone produced
What is the influence of tempo on bowing?
The faster the tempo, the more notes the player can take comfortably on each bow
What are down-bows used best for?
Heavily accented notes
Strong beats in a measure
What are up-bows used for?
An anacrusis (up-beat) so that the strong beat that follows may be taken down-bow.
Crescendos are somewhat easier on an up-bow.
What is a slurred-staccato bowing?
An up-bow stroke
What is a jete (or ricochet)
Performed on a down-bow
What are the signs for up-bow and down-bow?
Up-bow is a ^ upside down
Down-bow is like a square u upside down
When are up-bow and down-bow marks used?
Only at points where the player would not likely to choose that bowing automatically
What is legato bowing?
Groups of notes slurred together making the total effect as smooth as possible
What is detache bowing?
Each note is bowed separately.
What is martele or martellato bowing?
The bow does not strike the string from above but begins and remains on it, moving very quickly and stopping abruptly at the end of each stroke so that there is a clean-cut separation between notes.
What is slurred staccato bowing?
An on-the-string bowing in which a series of notes is taken with a separate "push" for each note
What is the first type of slurred staccato?
Primarily an up-bow stroke consisting of three or four notes that are made to sound separately under the same bow
What is the second type of slurred staccato?
Referred to as "hooked bowing" or "linked bowing" being performed on either an up-bow or a down-bow and consists of two notes with a separation between them that is produced by a momentary stopping of the bow before it continues in the same direction
What is loure bowing?
Two or more notes are taken on one bow, with a separate pressure and a slight initial swelling of the sound on each note
What is spiccato bowing?
A light, middle-bow stroke in which the bow bounces off the string, taking one note to each bow
What is staccato volante bowing?
A type of spiccato bowing similar to the slurred staccato but off the string. Instead of reversing direction for each note as in the ordinary spiccato, the bow picks up a series of short notes, usually on an up-bow
What is jete bowing?
The bow is made to bounce on the string very rapidly with a down-bow stroke in such a way as to sound a group of two to six notes
What are tremolos?
The bowed tremolo is simply an accelerated version of the detache, and the fingered tremolo makes use of ordinary slurred bowing while the fingers produce the distinctive effect
What is the unmeasured bowed tremolo?
The bow is moved back and forth over the string as rapidly as possible
What is the measured tremolo?
Calls for a definite number of repeated notes, the number being shown by the notation. One line through a quarter-note or half-note stem means eighth notes; two lines, sixteenths. One line through an eighth-note stem means sixteenths; two lines thirty-seconds; and so on. Triplets are indicated by the numeral 3 above each note
What is a fingered tremolo?
One finger remains fixed on the lower of the two notes while another finger alternately plays and releases the upper note very rapidly so that a kind of trill between the notes results
What is muting?
The mute, a small clamp of wood, metal, rubber, leather, bone, or plastic which fits onto the bridge, reduces the volume of tone and gives it a veiled quality
What is sul ponticello?
At or near the bridge. The resulting sound is glassy and eerie in quality
What is sul tasto?
Over the fingerboard. The sound is softer and less resonant
What is col legno?
With the wood- that is, the back of the bow.
What are the two ways of producing col legno?
Striking the string with the wood of the bow (col legno battuto)
Drawing the wood of the bow across the string (col legno tratto)
What is silent fingering?
The player fingers the given notes forcefully without bowing or plucking the strings; faint pitched sounds result
What is damping the string?
The left hand touches the string, stopping the sound before it dies away naturally. (Looks like a coda sign)
What kind of sound is produced by striking the strings with the palm of the right hand?
The sound of the strings ringing
What are two other unusual methods of producing string sounds?
Tapping the body of the instrument at various places or rubbing the body of the instrument with the palm in a circular motion
What is snap pizzicato?
The string is plucked with such force that it rebounds against the fingerboard
What is nail pizzicato?
This involves using the fingernail rather than the fleshy part of the fingertip to pluck the string. The resulting sound is sharply metallic
What is plectrum pizzicato?
The string is plucked with a guitar, mandolin, or banjo pick
What is buzz pizzicato?
After being plucked, the string vibrates agains the player's fingernail
What is guitar pizzicato or brush pizzicato?
The strings are stroked gently by the thumb or several fingers
What is pizzicato roll or tremolo?
Accomplished by plucking the string with two or more fingers alternately
What is a pizzicato glissando?
After the string is plucked, the left hand makes a glissando
What is a pizzicato behind the bridge?
Behind the bridge. This sound can also be made with the nail.
What is modo ordinario?
The direction for canceling any of these special effects
What does molto vibrato mean?
To use more vibrato that they normally would?
What does scordatura mean?
The player is directed to tune one or more strings higher or lower than usual
What is a glissando or portamento?
The finger slides along the string instead of stopping each note separately
What does half (of a string group) mean?
Only half of the group is to play
What are natural harmonics?
Overtones of the strings that have a flutelike, silvery quality
How are artificial harmonics produced?
The string is pressed down firmly by the first finger at a point two octaves below the pitch of the desired harmonic; at the same time, the fourth finger touches the string lightly at a point a perfect 4th high, which is equivalent to dividing the unstopped portion of the string into quarters. A harmonic two octaves above the firmly fingered pitch results