nutrition test 1

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nutrition test 1
2013-02-13 00:46:05
nutrition mrs blank

mrs blanks chapters 1-4
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  1. the stages babies through teenages go through concerning accepting/not accepting foods
    • -babies+ toddlers- willing to try new things
    • -preschoolers- food neophobia(dislike for new unfamilar things)
    • -school age children- accept a wide array of foods
    • -teenagers- strongly influenced by peers
  2. what is umami
    what is neophobia
    japanese word for meaty or savory taste produced by glutinmate(amino acid found in monosodium glutimate)

    dislike for anything new or unfamiliar
  3. two most important sensory influences on food choices
    • taste and texture
    • then cost and convience
  4. cognitive influences on food choices
    • 1. habits- breakfast lunch and dinner
    • 2. comfort/discomfort foods- comfort makes us feel better, relieve stress and allay anxiety while discomfort reminds us of negative associations
    • 3. advertising and promotion- businesses spends billions marketing foods and beverages targeting children and adolescents
    • 4. food and diet trends- low fat diet, low-carb diet, gluten-free products
    • 5. social factors- infants learn from parents, peers, social pressure and social events
    • 6. nutrition and health benefits- beliefs dietary change will have positive results and desire to lose weight will influence food intake
  5. why gluten-free product production is rising in the U.S.
    products are rising 15-25%/yearly due to increase of celiac disease
  6. environmental influences on food choices
    • 1.economic- cost
    • 2. lifestyle- frozen entrees and complete meals in a box, 50% of food budget is spent away from home, restaurants include calorie count on menu
    • 3.availabilty-food deserts on healthy foods. rely on quick markets with foods of high sugar and fats
    • 4. cultural - tradition and eating is a primary way to maintain relationships
    • 5. religion- islams and jewish
  7. obesogenic
    overconsumption of calories while discouraging physical activities
  8. one of the strongest cultural influences on food
  9. food desert
    area that lack access to affordable fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat milk, and other healthy foods
  10. judaism-
    • kosher foods- from clean animals that chew their cud and have cloven hooves. fish must have fins and scales.
    • NO- pork, crustaceans and shellfish, birds of prey

    orthodox jews- no meat and milk in the same meal or preparing or serving with same dishes and utensils
  11. islamic
    • acceptable foods are halal.
    • NO- pork, flesh of clawed animals, alcohol and other intoxicating drugs

    they fast from dawn to sunset during Ramadan - 9th month of islamic lunar calendar
  12. buddhism
    prohibits intoxicating beverages
  13. mormons
    disapproves of coffee, tea and alcoholic beverages
  14. hinduism
    • vegetarians-
    • no- eggs
  15. jain religion-
    no-meats or animals products or any ground/root vegetables
  16. macronutrients
    • large quantities needed by the body
    • carbs, lipids and proteins
  17. micronutrients
    • small quantities needed by the body
    • vitamins and minerals
  18. organic substances- CONTAIN CARBON
    carbs, proteins, lipids, and vitamins
  19. inorganic substances- CONTAIN NO CARBON
    minerals and water
  20. carbohydrates- contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • 1. starches and sugars
    • 2. functions- energy source
    • 3. grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, and dairy products
  21. lipids- contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • 1. trigylcerides (fats and oils), cholesterol and phospholipids
    • 2. functions- energy source
    •          -all lipids provide structure for cells
    •          -carry fat soluble vitamins (ADEK)
    •          -provide starting material(cholesterol) for making hormones
    • 3. fats and oil we cook with, fats in meat, dairy products, plant sources in coconut, olives and avocado
  22. proteins- contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
    • 1.made of amino acids
    • 2. functions- build and maintain processes
    •                 -regulate body processes
    •                 -provide energy source
    • 3. meats, dairy, grains, legumes and vegetable, some fruits
  23. fat-soluble vitamins
    A D E K vitamins
  24. water-soluble vitamins
    C and 8 B vitamins
  25. functions of vitamins
    regulate body processes (energy production, blood clotting and calcium balance)
  26. macrominerals or major minerals-
    body needs in relatively large quantites
  27. microminerals or trace minerals
    body needs in very small amounts
  28. functions of macro and microminerals
    • structural roles- bones and teeth
    • regulatory roles- fluid balance and regulation of muscle contraction
  29. most important nutrient
    • water
    • 60% of body is made of water
    • regulates:
    • - temperature control
    • - lubrication of joints
    • -transportation of nutrients and wastes
  30. kcal yield per gram of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and alcohol
    • carbs: 4 kcal/g
    • proteins: 4 kcal/g
    • lipids ( triglycerides only): 9 kcal/g
    • alcohol: 7 kcal/g
  31. health risks that increase with obesity
    • coronary heart disease
    • cancer
    • type 2 diabetes
    • hypertension
    • stroke
    • gall bladder disease
    • osteoarthritis
  32. amount of moderate physical activity time recommended to reduce diseases
    • 30 mins/day to reduce chronic disease risks
    • 60 mins/ day to have a positive impact on weight management efforts
  33. steps utilized in the scientific method
    • 1 observation
    • 2. hypothesis
    • 3. experimentation
    • 4. publication
    • 5. more experiments
    • 6. theory
  34. epidemiological studies
    • -compares disease rates among population groups and attempts to identify conditions or behaviors such as smoking and diet
    • - provide info about relationship but dont clarify cause and effect
    • - show correlation- relationships between two or more factors
  35. animal studies
    • -provide preliminary data that lead to human studies
    • - need to be followed with cell culture studies and then humans clinical studies to determind specific effects in humans
  36. cell culture studies
    • -grow and use cells to study the effects of nutrients or other components on metabolic processes in a cell
    • -nutrigenomic explores effects of specific nutrients and chem compounds on gene expressions
    •       -may lead to designing diets based on individual's genetic profile
  37. human studies
    factors provide info about cause progression and prevention of the disease
  38. nutrigenomics
    study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression
  39. another name for clinical trials
    intervention studies
  40. define placebo
    an imitation treatment/intervention
  41. define double blind study
    neither the subjects nor researchers collecting data know subjects group assignments
  42. case control study vs clinical trials
    • case control: two groups are compared
    • clinical trials: controlled studies with intervention used to determine impact on certain health perimeters
  43. intervention:
    a nutrient supplement controlled diet or exercise program
  44. adequacy
    choosing meals and snacks that are high in vitamins and minerals but low to moderatw in energy (calorie) content
  45. balance:
    a diet is balanced if the amount of energy (calories) consumed equals the amount of energy expended in daily activity and exercse ans when food chosen provide adequate nutrients
  46. calorie control
    the amountof calories you need to maintain or achieve a adequate weight, then choose an adequate diet that balances the calories you eat with your body uses
  47. nutrients density
    nutrient dense foods are those foods that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals in proportion to relatively few calories
  48. moderation
    too much or too little of anything or any nutrient can be harmful to an individuals health
  49. variety:
    including lots of different foods in the diet, not just different foods, group, but also different foods from each food group
  50. ultimate goal of the dietary guidelines for Americans
    improve the health of our nation's current and future generations by facilitating and choices so behaviors become way of life
  51. two overarching concepts in the dietary guidelines for americans
    maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight
  52. key recommendations of the dietary guidelines for americans
    • 1. prevent and or reduce overweight and obesity through improved eating and physical activity behaviors
    • 2. control total calorie intake to manage body weight
    • 3. increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors
    • 4. maintain appropriate calorie balance during each stage of life
  53. 7 messages from the dietary guidelines for americans conveyed by MyPlate
    • 1. enjoy food but eat less
    • 2. avoid oversized portions
    • 3. make half your plate a variety of fruits and vegetables
    • 4. drink water instead of sugar drinks
    • 5. eat/drink fat free or low fat milk products
    • 6. compare sodium in foods
    • 7. make half your grains whole grains
  54. original purpose of exchange lists
    to help people with diabetes plan diets that would supply constant levels of energy and carbohydrates.
  55. USDA
    united states department of agriculture
  56. DASH
    dietary approaches to stop hypertension
  57. RNI
    recommended nutrient intake
  58. DRI
    dietary reference intakes
  59. EAR
    estimated average requirement
  60. RDA
    recommended dietary allowances
  61. AI
    adequate intake
  62. UL
    tolerable upper intake level
  63. EER
    estimated energy requirement
  64. FDA
    food and drug administration
  65. whats EAR
    reflects the amount of nutrition that would meet the needs of 50% of individuals in a specific life stage and gender group
  66. whats RDA
    daily intake level that meets the needs of most people in a specific life stage age and gender group
  67. whats AI
    can be used when not enough data are available to set an EAR level, values determined by observing healthy groups of people and estimating their dietary intake
  68. whats UL
    represents the maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose health risks to almost all individuals in the group for whom they are designed
  69. recommended percentage balance of energy sources in a healthful diet according to the Acceptable Macronutrient DIstribution Ranges
    • -fat: 20-35%
    • -carbs: 45-65%
    • -protein: 10-35%
    • -n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: 5-10%
    • -a-linolenic acid: .6-1.2%
  70. mandatory components of a food label
    • -statement of identity displaying a descriptive term
    • -net contents of package (weight volume measure or numerical count)
    • - name and address of manufacturer, packer, or distributor
    • - list all ingredients in descending order by weight
    • - nutritional information
    • -the 8 common food allergies (egg, wheat, peanuts, milk, tree nuts, soy, fish, and crustaceans)
  71. mandatory components of a nutrition facts label
    • -serving size
    • -number of servings per container
    • - calorie per serving
    • - calories from fat
    • - other pertinent info related to nutrient content
    • - must display the percentages of daily values for vitamins A and C, calcium and iron
    • - if manufacturer claims foor is enriched or fortified, it must include specific nutrition info for these nutrients
  72. daily values
    set of dietary standards used to compare the amount of a nutrient in a serving of a food to the amount recommended for daily consumption
  73. differentiate btwn enriched and fortified
    • enriched- refers to food products that have added vitamins or minerals that were lost during processing
    • fortified- refers to the addition of vitamin D or folic acid that werent originally present in a food
  74. nutrient content claims
    • certain regulations are set forth by Nutrition Labeling and Education Act and the FDA that must be adhereed to for the manufacturers to make certain claims regarding product
    • - claims cant be misleading
  75. health claims
    statement that links one or more dietary components to reducing the risks of disease
  76. structure/function claims
    describes potention effects on body structures or functions such as bone health, muscle strength, and digestion and must be related to nutritive value
  77. Functional foods
    widely considered to be a food or food component that may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition
  78. the source of phytochemicals, whether essensial for life or not, and what components they include:
    found in plants, not essential for life but do promote good health. include 1000s of compounds, pigments and antioxidents
  79. chronic diseases are decreased by the use of Lycopene and recognize the foods that contain it
    decreases risk of chronic diseases and cardiovascular diseases and is found in yellow, red, and orange plant pigments

    watermelon, tomatoes, grapefruit
  80. foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity
    foods such as soybean, cabbage, ginger, licorice, celery, carrots and parsley
  81. how phytochemicals work to protect the body from specific diseases
    block the effect of estrogen on cell growth, may inhibit development of breasts, ovarian, or prostate tumors
  82. free radicals and the affect they have on body
    are active oxidants, continually produced in our cells and over time can result in damage to DNA and other cell structure. this damage can promote cancer and cell aging.
  83. direct additives
    added to a food for a specific reason
  84. indirect additives
    substances that unintentionally become part of the food in trace amounts
  85. direct additives are used for five reasons
    • 1.maintaining nutritional value
    • 2.improving or maintaining nutritional value
    • 3. keeping the food appetizing and wholesome
    • 4. providing leavening or controlling acidity and alkalinity
    • 5. enhancing flavor or giving a desired color
  86. three most common additives
    sugar, salt and corn syrup
  87. four regulatory categories according to the FDA
    • 1. food additives
    • 2. color additives
    • 3. sugar salt and corn syrup substances
    • 4. prior sanctioned substances
  88. GRAS
    generally recognized as safe
  89. the Delaney Clause
    that food and color additives cannot be approved if they cause cancer in humans or animals
  90. nutrient content claim
    statement that describes the level of a nutrient or dietary substance in the product
  91. health claim
    statement that associates food or substance in a food with a disease or health- related condition
  92. structure/function claim
    statement that promotes a substance's effect on body structure or functions.
  93. groups of individuals that need moderate nutrient supplements
    • --women of child bearing age
    • -pregnant + breastfeeding women
    • -women with heavy mentral bleeding
    • -children + infants
    • -people with severe food restrictions
    • -strict vegetarians
    • -elders
  94. megadose of a nutrient
    contain 10 or more times the recommended amount of nutrients
  95. situations that may  require the prescription of megadoses
    1. medications dramatically deplete the stores or blocks the functions of vitamins or minerals

    2. individuals with malabsorption syndrome

    3. indiviuals with malabsorption of vit B12 causing prenicious anemia
  96. drawbacks of using megadoses of nutrients
    • 1. deficits of other nutrients
    • 2. absorption of other minerals
    • 3. fat soluble vit A + D can be toxic at high levels
    • 4. vit E at high levels can interfere with vit K and blood clotting
  97. interaction of selected precriptions drugs with specific herbs
    1. HERBS: feverfew , garlic, ginger, ginko biloba, guarana and pau'd Arco with DRUGS: warfarin, aspirin and cumadin. INTERACTION: increases anti-coagulant effect by inhibiting platelet aggregation

    2. HERBS: hawthorn and horse chestnut DRUGS: digoxin and diuretics INTERACTION: affects cardiac function and blood pressure

    • 3. HERBS: aloe, senna (laxative), cascara, licorice DRUGS: digoxin and diuretics INTERACTION: causes electrolyte imbalance
  98. included as Dietary Supplement categories, in addition to vitamins and minerals
    • protein powders
    • amino acid
    • carotenoids
    • bioflavonoids
    • digestive aids
    • fatty acid formulas
    • probiotics
    • garlic products
    • fiber and many others
  99. who is responsible for ensuring that advertisements and commercials concerning dietary supplements are truthful and not misleading
    FTC- federal traqde commission
  100. who is primarily responsible for regulating labeing and conten of dietary supplements
    FDA- food and drug administration
  101. what is a good indicator mark of the quality of a dietary supplement
    US pharmacopela verification mark which verifies the dietary supplement's purity, accuracy of ingredient labeling and proper manufacturing practices
  102. complementary and alternative medicine CAM
    complementary- practices that are in addition to conventional ones (ex. using herbs to combat diarrhea caused by conventional AIDS meds and taking supplements to replace lost vitamins

    alternative- practices that replace conventional ones (ex. using only herbs and megavitamins to treat AIDS)
  103. four sensory influences that combine to produce a perception of flavor
    • taste
    • smell
    • texture
    • temperature
  104. another name for the GI tract
    alimentary canal
  105. peristalsis
    waves of muscular contractions that transport food and nutrients along the lenght of the GI tract
  106. segmentation
    series of muscular contractions and occure in the small intestine which divides and mixes chyme
  107. hydrolysis
    breaking apart of water
  108. what makes up GI enzymes and their functions
    made of protein compounds that catalyze or speed up chemical reactions but are not altered in the process
  109. passive diffusion
    the movement of molecules through the cell membrane without the expenditure of energy
  110. facilitated diffusion
    occurs as special protein channels help substances cross the cell membrane
  111. active transport
    requires energy to help substances cross the cell membrane
  112. liver
    produces and secretes bile
  113. gall bladder
    stores bile
  114. functions of bile
    acts as an emulsifier by reducing large globs of fat into smaller ones
  115. enterohepatic circulation
    bile is reabsorbed and returned to the liver
  116. nutrient that triggers the gall bladder to release bile
    dietary fats

    release bile through the COMMON BILE DUCT into the SMALL INTESTINe
  117. pancreas
    releases hormones INSULIN AND GLUCAGON

    to regulate blood glucose levels
  118. nutrients that start being digested in and around the oral cavity, and which enzymes are needed for each process
    starch is broken down by AMyLASE

    fat is broken down by lingual lipase
  119. bolus
    a moistened lump of food that is soft and easy to swallow
  120. chyme
    food in the stomach mixed with GI secretion
  121. locations of sphincters along GI track
    espophageal sphincter- top of stomach

    pyloric sphincter- just before the small intestine
  122. hydrochloric acid aka gastric acid
    • drops pH to 2
    • kills pathogenic bacteria
    • aids in digestion of protein
    • releases Vit B12 from food in stomach
  123. mucus
    secreted by stomach cells and coats the stomach
  124. pepsinogen
    • converts to the enzyme, pepsin because of HCl
    • pepsin breaks protein chain to small pieces
  125. gastric lipase
    breaks down butterfat (lipid)
  126. gastrin (hormone)
    stimulates gastric secretion and movement
  127. instrinsic factor (protein)
    necessary for absorption of vit B12 near the end of small intestine (illium)
  128. where each nutrient starts digestion.
    where majority of digestion occurs
    where nutrient is absorbed
    CARBS- 30-40% are digested in the stomach ; small intestine completes majority of digestion and absorbs most of nutrient

    PROTEIN- 10-20% are digested in stomach and the remainder is digested and absorbed inthe small intesting

    FATS- 10% or less are digested in stomach and most of the rest are digested and absorbed in the SMALL intestine
  129. where do most of the water absorption occurs in the GI tract
  130. primary function of large intestine
    to remove wastes
  131. route of absorption for water soluble nutrients
    directly from intestinal cells into tiny capillaries tributaries of the bloodstream, which carry them to the liver before they are dispersed through the body
  132. route of absorption for fat soluble nutrients
    absorbed into the lymphatic system where vessels pick up and transport most end products of fat digestion
  133. two primary organs for the excretion of metabolic water 
    final organ through which elimination of digestion waste occurs
    lungs and kidneys

    GI tract
  134. within the immune system, the body stream that has the largest barrier to guard against  infectious agents entering the body
    gastrointestinal system- GI tract
  135. the chemical that is produced when foods are fried in high amount of fat and effect it has digestion
    acrolein- it decreases the flow of digestive secretions
  136. effects on absorption when eatin food on an empty stomach vs a full stomach
    empty stomach- food will absorb faster because it has more contact with gastric secretions
  137. two GI disorders caused by harmful bacteria that may be prevented by secreting sufficient amounts of of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
    gastritis and peptic ulcers
  138. why certain bacteria can cause food-borne illness even with a sufficient secretion of hydrochloric acid
    they may resist the harmful effects of HCL and survive
  139. vitamins that may be formed in the large intestine (colon) and what may digested in large intestine producing a small amount of energy
    K and B12

    digest fiber producing a small amount of energy
  140. the dietary causes/associations of constipation
    caused by a diet low in fiber and water but high in fats, corrected by adding fiber and water
  141. diarrhea
    caused when products move too quickly and not allow water to be reabsorbed, low fiber and avoidance of sugar help, slowly add foods with pectin and potassium to help
  142. gastroesophageal reflux
    caused by chocolate, peppermint, fatty foods, coffee and carbonated beverages and decrease fat content.
  143. colorectal cancer
    fruits and vegetables, folate and calcium with physical exercise decrease risks

    diet of high in meat and fat and low in fiber can be part of cause
  144. flatuence
    carbohydrates, sugars and starches cause more gas than foods like fat proteins
  145. the bacteria and group of drugs that cause ulcers in stomach and dudodenum, and which two cause the highest precentage of ulcers
    HELICOBACTERPYLORIC is the bacteria

    NSAID's are the drugs

    bacteria causes 80% of ulcers
  146. the proper dietary recommendations for correcting/lessoning
    constipation- correcting- drink water and eat fiber

    diarrhea- low fiber and avoidance of sugar help.. slowly add foods with pectin and potassium to help

    gastroesophageal reflux- eat foods 2-3 hrs before bedtime and elevate head
  147. peptic ulcers
    a sore that forms in the duodenum or lining of stomach
  148. functional dyspepsia
    chronic pain in the upper abdomen that has no known physical cause
  149. effect that cigarette smoking has on gastroesophageal reflux
    it weakens the esophageal sphincter
  150. diverticulitis-
    occurs when pouches become infected or inflamed
  151. irritable bowl syndrome
    causes abdominal pain, altered bowl habits and cramps